The post-disability discourse examines the problem from a psychological rather than a medical standpoint. The medical model stresses that disability arises from a person’s physical and mental abilities is limited. As a result, the model focuses on the individual and the biological components of their disability. On the other hand, the social viewpoint sees disability as a result of one’s environments, such as the environment, culture, and people’s attitudes toward the disabled (PSAC & AFPC, 2015). People are not retarded, but impaired, according to the model. These impairments become disabilities as a result of society’s discrimination and exclusion from social roles and functions. As a result, disability is a social and environmental construct that can only be addressed by society and the environment and can only be eliminated by focusing on the social contexts to eliminate the barriers that create the vice. Therefore, the post-disability discourse is inclined on the social model of disability rather than the old medical one. Subsequently, this discourse creates inclusions and exclusions as discussed below.
Shakespeare and Watson (2015) argue that while the social model has achieved much of the anticipated benefits for the people, it has led to some exclusions for the disabled. The perspective has been expressed widely especially in the English setting. By making the society the center stage of the issue of disability, advocates of the social model have managed to eliminate the limited the social barriers that are persistent in the society. It has led to inclusion in the workplace, politics and other societal duties that the disabled were previously unable to access. However, it has excluded them from the treatment plan that came with the medical model, since they argue that the society causes disability the issue of the people’s impairments is left out. As a result, the societal barriers are eliminated but the impairments that the individuals go through persist. Therefore, the impairment of the disabled is excluded from the entire discourse. Further, the social model leads to denial where the disable people want to be seen as normal. It, therefore, alienates them from the physical or mental impairments thereby leading to the derailment in recovering from them.
Underwood (2015) also uses the idea of the Social model to show that children can be protected from disability by inclusion in the school programs and subsequently, adjustments made as they progress through the various stages of life. In fact, the article does not use the world disable but argues that all children should be included in the programs it advocates for inclusion programs where no one is disabled if all the barriers that hinder their interaction with the society, environment, fellow learners and teachers are eliminated. The discourse promotes the idea that inclusion in the school, from the early age eliminates disability and enables the children to participate in all the activities just like the other children who do not have any physical or mental impairments. Thus, the argument presents the critical inclusion of the children by creating a positively charged environment where the students, professionals, policies and leaders are all pro-inclusion. Further, it ensures that the inclusion plan is individualized for all the students to eliminate all barriers that may exist in isolation. Nevertheless, despite the promotion of inclusion in school and all learning institutions, the specific impairments that each of the students may be experiencing are excluded from the programs just as Shakespeare and Watson (2001) argue. Therefore, despite the success of the social model in the post-disability discourse, it excludes the impairments that people face, which are equally important and require to be addressed to promote improved quality of life.
PSAC, & AFPC. (2015). Defining Disability: From a medical model to a social model of disability | Public Service Alliance of Canada. Retrieved from http://psac-ncr.com/defining-disability-medical-model-social-model-disability
Shakespeare, T., & Watson, N. (2001). The social model of disability: an outdated ideology? In Exploring theories and expanding methodologies: Where we are and where we need to go (pp. 9-28). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Underwood, K. (2015). Everyone Is Welcome: Inclusive Early Childhood Education and Care.