After World War II and the Holocaust in which six million Jewish individuals were slaughtered, more Jewish individuals needed their own nation. They were given a substantial piece of Palestine, which they considered their customary home however the Arabs who previously lived there and in neighboring nations felt that was out of line and didn't acknowledge the new nation. In part I of Shapira’s Israel: A History, the author discusses about the formation of a national culture and the changes that came in language and secularization of the Palestine. From First Aliya and World War I, there was a rise in modern Jewish settlement and secular Jewish identity. Ahad Ha’am and Micah Josef are credited as the central mentors of Jewish community in Palestine (Shapira 46).
There was adherence to the culture by the first generation but the second and third generations were mostly secularized. Education in moshavot included traditional an d secular elements and teachers were not very observant of such situations. In the Second Aliya members, secularization was more pronounced. Some of the possible reasons for this abandonment of traditions is because of several factors such as the long distance from traditional homes, lack of adult supervision, and company of peers including Arab neighbors. In 1948, the opposite sides did battle. When it finished, Gaza was controlled by Egypt and another region, the West Bank, by Jordan. They contained a great many Palestinians who fled what was currently the new Jewish home, Israel (Gelvin, 23)
A significant achievement of the Zionist movement was the conversation of Hebrew from being a closely religious tied language into a common day language. In Palestine, the teachers were credited with also shaping the Zionist movement as they influenced dates in the Zionist calendar and connection with historical sites with heroic profiles. The author notes that the Bible was the seminal text which was used to link national past with present with Mossinsohn using it to instill love for Israel in his students. Be that as it may, starting during the 1980s, comparable contentions started to course in Israel itself– not just in Arab patriot or Islamic fundamentalist circles, however among Jewish scholastics and scholarly people, the vast majority of whom purported to be faithful Israeli subjects.
Newspapers and educational institutions had become prevalent in the early 1900s with the educated group in Jerusalem and Jaffa converging in ideology with the Second Aliya workers to promote Hebrew culture in Palestine Jewish world. However, competition between Yiddish and Hebrew resulted to conflict with the Hebrew culture withstanding hostility to grow strong as seen in the Brenner Affair when Brenner published a controversial article leading to national wide revolt in Palestine. Later on, the language war as Ezra institutions struggled to prevent external influences changing the language of instructions to German. In exploring the Yishuv society, culture and ethos, youth rebellion is attributed as part of the Zionist experience. These thinkers– who wound up known as "post-Zionists"– acknowledged Israel's entitlement to exist, however placed a solid association between the inescapability of Zionist belief system and the propagation of the Israeli-Palestinian clash
The shift from old to new Jew was also included in the education system where children were made to commit to the cause of Jewish interests. In Segev Tom Agnon One Palestine: Complete, the author present insights into the culture wars in education. The Zionist sponsored the Hebrew University using Albert Einstein to promote the project, who despite agreeing to give lectures and tour for promotional purposes showed disapproval for some Jewish practices. Before the finish of the war, Israel had vanquished about 80 percent of Palestine; 75% of a million Palestinians had been made displaced people; many towns and towns had been annihilated; and another guide was drawn up, in which each city, waterway and hillock got another, Hebrew name, as all remnants of the Palestinian culture were to be deleted. For a considerable length of time Israel precluded the presence from securing this populace, Eventually, the Zionist settled with a Hebrew Institution of humanities in Jerusalem. Funds were raised for a fully fledged campus university but the planning of the project did not materialize at the time.
LECTURE 2 – October 18: Utopian Zionism – Kibbutz
Assigned Reading: Shapira, Anita. Israel: A History
In discussing the Second Aliya and the birth of the pioneering ethos, the authors explain how the Zionist movement faced a depressive state in the early 1900s and a lot of immigrants were recorded leaving Eastern Europe. Increased radicalization was seen in the growing face of industrialization acceleration and urbanization. Radicalization increased with the Russian revolution and later on individuals such as Ber Borochov change the situation with synthesized Marixm and Zionism ideology. Later on many young Israel youth who had gone abroad returned to Palestine after campaigns by individuals such as Joseph Vitkin campaigned for youths of Israel to return home. Due to the spirit of revolution in Eastern Europe, the youths returning home yearned for changes and soon a political party ‘The Young Worker’ was formed followed by the Poalei Zion party. Soon there was a clash between the traditional observant society and the new secularized youth. New Jewish Yishuv in the settlers brought about issues in structure in Moshavot as the socio-economic were not working well for both the old and the young.
In this view, the author demonstrates that the problems that later came to be contemporary conflicts between Jews and Arabs were primarily based on the interference of outside forces between the two groups. The Jews and Zionist groups campaigning for changes had managed to establish a powerful political compass in global affairs but could not exercise their determination due to interference by British control. On the other hand, the British were skeptical and anxious that if left to their means, the Zionists had amassed a lot of political clout in the global platform which Arabs did not have.
Since Arabs lacked such a massive political ordinate around the world, the British ruled over Palestine as one complete nation but set the conflict in motion by promising Homeland ownership to both groups. It is however pointed out that contrary to popular belief, the British were not Pro-Arab but in fact favored the Zionist who were deemed to be dominant in business and world affairs. It was therefore in the end not actions of justice and determination of right and wrong that led to the British favoring the Zionist but more about calculated move of a group they thought had more strategic impact over European affairs than the Arabs. Strategic decision making was therefore not consulted using evidence and fair reasons which led to the rebellions of the Arabs later on when it became apparent Jewish agency was favored by the British. Brit Shalom, maybe the best-known Jewish bi-patriot development amid the British Mandate, which tallied Martin Buber, Gershom Scholem, Henrietta Szold, and Hannah Arendt among its individuals and supporters. Greenstein demonstrates that the development needed not for well meaning plans nearest Israeli and Palestinian developments came to genuine bi-national participation was what Greenstein calls the "early exchange" between the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP), an activist, Marxist association inside the Palestinian national development, and Matzpen, the communist, hostile to Zionist development. The DFLP and Matzpen's correspondence,
By the end of 1939, after a three year revolt of the Palestine Arabs, the British had foreseen a bleak future in their continued stay in the region. Segev writes that the British still maintained strategic interests in the region due to ties to Egypt and Iran hence the need to retain control of parts of Palestine. In this regard, it is demonstrated that there was a form of alliance between the British and the Zionists which undermined the Arabs’ interests in the region. In his view, the British left the Arabs in a less progressive state that the Zionists but still shows that there was not much animosity outside the central territorial conflicts even in early period before the British left. An example is given for the Hebron riots (1929) when 67 Jews were killed but more were saved after local Arabs helped some to escape by hiding them from the attackers in their homes. The final blame is however visibly laid on the international community represented by the United Nations for taking up the resolution to divide Palestine into two states forming the Jewish state. Ironically, what the Jewish celebrated as the independence was what the Palestinians experienced as a catastrophe (Al Nakba)
LECTURE 3 – October 23: Jewish Immigrants vs. Arab inhabitants
Assigned Reading: Shapira, Anita. Israel: A History.
Additional Reading: Segev, Tom. One Palestine, Complete.
Optional Reading: Shoham, Hizky. ‘Buy Local’ or “Buy Jewish’? Separatist Consumption in Interwar Palestine
At first, this migration made no issues. Be that as it may, as an ever increasing number of Zionists moved to Palestine – numerous with the express wish of assuming control over the land for a Jewish state – the indigenous populace turned out to be progressively frightened. In the long run, battling broke out, with raising floods of brutality. Until 1948, Palestine commonly alluded to the geographic locale situated between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River. Middle Easterner individuals who call this domain home are known as Palestinians. German ascent to control, joined with Zionist exercises to undermine endeavors to put Jewish outcasts in western countries prompted expanded Jewish migration to Palestine, and strife developed.
The Zionist cultural economy was influenced by the interwar in Palestine as consumption patterns changed due to emergence of new political struggles. As Jews and Arabs related in different ways, their political struggles also defined the cultural economy of the two groups, separately and collectively. In the British Palestine territory, Jewish nationalist took up creative approaches towards politicizing the economy of the region. He acknowledgment that Zionism couldn't be vanquished by power, he accepted, would put a conclusion to Arab threatening vibe, preparing for the combination of Arab residents into the Jewish state based on individual– yet not national– rights. Untimely endeavors at trade off would extend shortcoming, and could just serve to support Arab rejectionism. The politicization was done through using knowln contemporary assumptions in view of economic nationalism. In ‘Buy Local or Buy Jewish? Separatist Consumption in Interwar Palestine’ article, Hizky Shoham argues that the Zionists attempted to creatively dominate the British Palestine economy by advancing ethno-nationalistic consumption strategies. In particular, the group pushed for separatist consumption for different ethno nationals.
At last, it is huge to take note of that Arab armed forces entered the contention simply after Zionist powers had submitted 16 slaughters, including the terrible slaughter of more than 100 men, ladies, and youngsters at Deir Yassin. Future Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin, head of one of the Jewish fear monger gatherings, portrayed this as great The campaigns that the Zionists launched went beyond exhorting people to buy local but also encouraged people to buy Jewish. In its own, this was not harmful or in any way dangerous but the inclusion of elements of discouraging people from buying products from other ethno-national sectors in Palestine ended up going beyond competitive business practices to ethnic rivalry and conflict triggering. The campaigns were carried out among the Jewish community which was manifested in the identification of products as either ‘Jewish’ or ‘foreign’ (Shoham, 32). The separatist definition escalated the Arab Jewish conflicts and shaped the economic conflict between the two groups. In the end, a dual society was created which was a precursor to the dual nation separation that followed after the British left.
LECTURE 4 – November 6: Building a State and Ingathering of the “Tribes of Israel”
Assigned Reading: Shapira, Anita. Israel: A History
Optional Reading: Kimichi, Rami. “A Turn Towards Modernity: The Ideological Innovation of Sallah”
In 1964 an Israeli film was selected interestingly for an Oscar as the best outside film. This film has since turned into the most prevalent Israeli film at any point made, and the envoy of the main Israeli unique film cycle: the Bourekas (1964– 1977). The idea of incorporation by investigating subjects of removal and vulnerability which perplexed the Mizrahi character all through the1960s and 1970 is advanced. Each previously mentioned film manages the transaction of Mizrahim character as per an overwhelming influence; regardless of whether it is a degenerate bureaucratic foundation, an affluent Ashkenazi male with an attractive little girl, or a manipulative Ashkenazi expert Sallah reflects and advances an adjustment in the Zionist first class' philosophy that occurred at the season of its dissemination: an abandon advancing Hebrewness as the real Zionist incentive to advancing Modernism as the focal Zionist esteem. The Bourekas films that pursued Sallah kept on underlining this change in belief system, vouching for a progressing centrality of innovation in Zionist philosophy.
Zionism, urged Jewish movement to the Land of Israel, already Palestine, with the end goal to build up a Jewish country state. Zionism upheld Jews maintaining their Jewish personality and restricted the osmosis of Jews into other overwhelming social orders. the Palestinian Communist Party (PCP) endeavored to accommodate its for the most part Jewish participation (in any event in the good 'ol days) with help for an Arab laborers' rebel against both huge Arab landowners and the British pilgrim specialists. The PCP's Jewish individuals stayed inside Zionist foundations like the Histradrut, the national exchange association, while verging on upholding for an outfitted Arab uprising against expulsions of Arab occupants by and arrive deals to Zionist settlement organizations. Despite wide help for the national points, the Palestinians couldn't accomplish the solidarity and quality important to withstand the consolidated weight of the British powers and the Zionist development.
Most of the populace, and people with significant influence amid the developmental long stretches of the state, were Ashkenazim. Israel's first Prime Minister David Ben Gurion, instilled with an European and provincial soul, declared that Israel was 'compelled by a sense of honor' to battle against the undermining soul of the Levant by keeping Jews from 'getting to be Arabs. Such was stopped by state constraint and the flare-up of common war in Jordan in 1970, yet those were not their solitary hindrances. Among the purposes of dispute between the two developments was simply the privilege to Jewish national assurance inside noteworthy Palestine. In a one-state arrangement, which would be a greater part Arab nation, would Jews have aggregate rights yet rather clear-headedness.
A significant number of the early Jewish bi-patriots, frequently themselves authorities in Zionist settlement associations, neglected to perceive how one hand's function fixed the other's. The viciousness and uprooting natural to extending Jewish pioneer settlement undermined and out and out discredited requires a quiet organization of Arabs and Jews. The article, committed completely to this film, Sallah, recommends a totally new perusing of it. As of not long ago, commentators would in general view Sallah as a rebellious political parody set against the authority of the period's Zionist elites in Israel. The article, embracing a neo-Marxist way to deal with inspecting Sallah, recommends that the film really fills in as an "ideological state mechanical assembly" for Zionist elites. key basic was perceived by the two gatherings (Kimchi, 17). Theodor Herzl, the author of the composed Zionist development, wrote in 1895 of framing in Palestine "a bit of a defense of Europe against Asia, a station of progress rather than brutality", while the British Military Governor of Jerusalem Sir Ronald Storrs, noted in 1917 that the Zionists would shape for England "a little steadfast Jewish Ulster in an ocean of possibly antagonistic Arabism
LECTURE 5 – November 8: Political and Cultural Dilemmas f the New State
Assigned Reading: Shapira, Anita. Israel: A History
Additional Reading: Feldman, Jackie. “Between Yad Vashem and Mt. Herzi: Changing Inscriptions of Sacrifice on Jerusalem’s Mountain of Memory”
Jackie Feldman (Ben Gurion University of the Negev) in Between Yad Vashem and Mt. Herzi: Changing Inscriptions of Sacrifice on Jerusalem’s Mountain of Memory demonstrates that memorial sites in Israel represent or symbolize the superimposition of different understanding of the sacrifices and lives given and lost during the Holocaust. The Zionists communicated their arrangement of colonization of Palestine in the expressions "victory of the land" and "success of work" – seizure and dispossession of the Palestinians and their avoidance from the economy (Feldman, 1148). Prior to 1948, this was completed on a little scale, to a great extent through land buy from truant proprietors.
In relation to conventional examples of possession, in any case, the Zionists did not purchase the land with the end goal to utilize the sharecroppers officially working the land, yet rather to supplant them. Thus, there are reports of removals and conflicts going back to the start of the twentieth century. The author makes comparisons between how Israeli independent fighters have been treated as compared to the Holocaust victims. Israel soldiers, on the other hand, have been handed a pass in more legitimacy with their association with Shoah victims in the period before and after the second Intifada. To illustrate this situation, the author examines memorial sites, rituals performed, paths, and monuments erected in the honor of the two groups.
One consequence of this contribution with European expansionism, nonetheless, was that the pioneers of the incipient patriot developments in the Middle East seen Zionism as an aide of European imperialism. The political structure was executed in the late 1930s when the British prohibited the Arab Higher Committee and captured many neighborhood lawmakers. At the point when endeavors were made during the 1940s to reconstruct the political structure, the impulse came to a great extent from outside, from Arab rulers who were bothered by the falling apart conditions in Palestine Also, Zionist declarations of the contemporary significance of the Jews' verifiable connections to Palestine, combined with their territory buys and movement, frightened the indigenous populace of the Ottoman areas that Palestine involved.
Seeing the contention as drawing inspiration from the American 9/11 tragedy, the author demonstrates that commemorative path ways have the capacity of past and present traffic. On the other hand, memorial sites (as well as rites) provide substitution for heroic history from fear of death (Shapira 52).
Segev explains back shadowing as a "retroactive portending in which the mutual learning of the result of a progression of occasions by a storyteller is utilized to pass judgment on the members in those occasions - as if they too ought to have comprehended what was to come." Segev sees the order through post-Zionist exhibitions for an Israeli gathering of people analyzing their history. Middle Easterner armed forces, less outstanding is the way that all through this war Zionist powers dwarfed all Arab and Palestinian soldiers joined – frequently by a factor of a few. In addition, Arab armed forces did not attack Israel – for all intents and purposes all fights were battled ashore that was to have been the Palestinian state. As per the author’s surmising, the Holocaust victims have been given less than respectful treatment when compared to the soldiers with an attitude suggesting the Holocaust victims were inferior in their morality than the soldiers permeating the contemporary space of ideology. Segev has also used Israeli chronicle material to record further dark spots in Zionist history. The notoriety of Orde Wingate, the British officer of the Jewish "extraordinary night squads", gets a battering after disclosures of the killings at the town of Hitin.
The various texts analyzed provide important insights into the situation of the Israel nation, Palestine, Zionism and the conflict that has marked the region of Gaza and Jerusalem for a long time. One emerging factor is that there are many intertwined factors and multi faceted elements to be considered before one attempts to understand the conflict and relationship of Arabs and Israelites. These factors are not limited to domestic realm in the geographical location but are stretched all over the world where different nations played a role in the development of the Israel nation and division of Palestine. For one, the British are a central element as their relationship with Arabs and Zionist influenced how each side perceived the other and their place in the division of Palestine to make way for a new nation. For the Arabs, the British were forming an unholy alliance with Zionist to oppress them. On their side, the Zionist felt that the British, and the international community in general, was either inconsiderate of their victimization or was indifferent to their needs.
It is for this reason that religious leaders and Jewish influencers abroad started a clarion call for Jews living abroad to return home and solidify the Jewish community. By this time, secularization had taken a central role in the life of Jews and while conservatives viewed it negatively, the younger generation took it as opportunity to go take the revolutionary inspirations from places such as Russia and demand for changes and justice for the Jewish community in Palestine. It has been noted that the move to consolidate the unity and progressive efforts of Jewish community might have gone beyond community loyalty to dangerous separatist ideologies seen in ‘Buy local buy Jew’ which pushed Jews to boycott taking their business to non Jews and exclusively buy from Jewish only. Eventually, the media, religious cohesion, international intervention and political discourse shaped the establishment of the new Israel nation but left the Jerusalem/Gaza conflict unresolved.
Gelvin, James L. The Israel-Palestine conflict: One hundred years of war. Cambridge University Press, 2014.
Feldman, Jackie. "Between Yad Vashem and Mt. Herzl: Changing inscriptions of sacrifice on Jerusalem's" Mountain of Memory"." Anthropological Quarterly (2007): 1147-1174.
Kimchi, Rami N. "A Turn towards Modernity: The Ideological Innovation of Sallah." Shofar 29.4 (2011): 1-22.
Shapira, Anita. Israel: A history. UPNE, 2012.
Segev, Tom. One Palestine, complete: Jews and Arabs under the British mandate. Macmillan, 2000.
Shoham, Hizky. "“Buy Local” or “Buy Jewish”? Separatist Consumption in Interwar Palestine." International Journal of Middle East Studies 45.3 (2013): 469-489.
Smith, Charles D. Palestine and the Arab-Israeli conflict: A history with documents. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.
Yiftachel, Oren. Ethnocracy: Land and identity politics in Israel/Palestine. University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006.