Types of Plagiarism

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Plagiarism captures the thoughts of another, replicating the text complete with a subtle reframing. Plagiarism is one of the most egregious offenses in any fiction. It can also be described as a transfer of ideas from the owner and make them personal. In the event that someone else makes it, they will act without referencing the source. Therefore, the crime of plagiarization is so extreme that it will cost someone a lot of money. In this article, I’m talking about plagiarism and the various kinds of plagiarism. I finish by raising the best methods to avoid plagiarism. In academic undertakings student who may be caught with plagiarized work, are likely to either get an E grade or risk a disqualification from their institutions. Similarly, there are other forms, and consequences of plagiarism. For example, taking an artist song lyrics, and owning them, is considered an offense that is punishable by law. For this reason, artists and authors are required to register their works with the people in charge of property rights. Additionally, plagiarism does not only occur in academics, but also in the visual, print, and music media. For instance, one may use another song in a movie, or a video without permission. Equally, scanning of images from another source, and making it personal, is considered as an act of plagiarism. Therefore, to avoid cases of stealing someone else work, one will be required to cite, and recognize the originality of the work.
Consequences
Plagiarism can cost one’s career especially those that are associated with saving lives. According to dentists.org, dentists are provided with a code of conduct right from the time that they enroll for the dentists school. For this reason, dentists are required to act according to the principle guidelines that have been provided in the ethics. The principles are meant to guide these professionals towards providing quality services to the community. The society expects that a dentist has been fully trained and that he/she can perform all the duties that are required in the field. Therefore, it would be critical for people in such professions to cheat in their class work, as it would affect their career performances in the future. Not only does plagiarism affect service delivery for students in the medical field, but also those in other disciplines. For this reason, individuals ought to understand the implications of delivering unoriginal work, as it may cost one career and the community as a whole. Moreover, it may lead to a discontinuation from an academic institution, while in other cases one may be sued for stealing someone original work. In other instances, one may score a grade E and get a lower GPA at the end of studies. Therefore, one ought to know the ways of avoiding plagiarism at all costs.
Professionalism and Plagiarism
In the event that individuals maintained professionalism in all aspects of life, plagiarism would not have been a topic of discussion. An article by Cooley on ADA website recognizes the significance of professionalism. According to the author, dentistry is not only about treating patients, how one qualifies to be that dentist who attends to patients. A dentist as a professional is required to handle patients according to the values, and the recommended conduct that they acquired during training. To enhance professionalism, the author indicated that the dental professional established a journal that provides the codes of conduct and all the expectations from a dentist. However, the author was careful to admit that the contemporary society is facing more challenges due to the advancement in technology. Conversely, technology has opened different avenues for professionals apart from increasing cases of plagiarism. As such, to be a professional means delivering work that is original, while acknowledging the works from other authors, and artist while submitting papers.
Additionally, professionalism can be achieved through an establishment on the codes of conduct that defines the principles of performing a certain task. For this reason, ADA has developed statutes that guide members towards avoiding cases that may render them unprofessional. Information from ADA website indicates that in 2016, ADA celebrated 150 years, and it accords its success story to the codes of conduct that dentists are provided with, while in school, and after completion. The principles were developed as the profession required a high level of discipline. Besides, the people in the society believe in the services that the dentists provide. Therefore, there is a need to maintain good conduct and adhere to the principles of providing dental services.
On the contrary, Cooley questions whether professionalism is an important aspect for a dentist, but informs that the manner in which it is taught to the students is what matters the most. Besides, he provides a statistic that only 20% of students were reported cheating in 1950. Conversely, today the figure has increased up to 83%, and the result is associated with advancement in technology. From Cooley’s perspectives, the difference in the percentages can be attributed to the change in societal moral values and code of conduct. As a result of the particular change, it is evident that teachers and tutors have little or no time to check the levels of plagiarism. One of the main contributing factors is that the student populations is on the increase, while the tools for analysis such as Grammarly and Turnitin, are not fully efficient. Nevertheless, Cooley provides that it is possible for plagiarism to be eradicated in the event that individuals employ in their works aspects of integrity, competence, respect, fairness, service-mindedness, and responsibility.
Subsequently, Cooley view on professionalism can be employed to the concept of plagiarism. For example, a student should uphold the integrity of work through submitting papers that respect the efforts of others. When a student shows a sense of responsibility in class, he/she is likely to apply the same principle in their future careers. Therefore, the concept of professionalism can only be successful if the level of competence a student depicts during studies, and training would be similar to service delivery. Resultantly, being a professional means that one employs the right principles and codes of conduct in both training and practice. Today, employers have reported that most of their new recruits fail to apply what they have learned in school to real-life situations. Therefore, there is a possibility that students are cheating their way into passing examinations, yet the same picture cannot be brought to live in the job market.
Types of Plagiarism
Plagiarism means that one depicts an aspect of dishonesty in his/her work. Often, students may copy work from their peer word-by- words, while others may try to change a few words to make it look somewhat different. Besides, one may perform the act without enclosing other author remarks in quotation marks. However, both the above antics can be considered as plagiarism. In other instances, one may commit an act of plagiarism if he/she paraphrases an author’s work without acknowledging them. Therefore, one ought to attribute an author work, to avoid theft. Nonetheless, while writing, one should not feel the pressure of inventing words and phrases, as one can apply personal knowledge on issues, and try to generate ideas on them. At times, one may have a similar idea with an author but fails to recognize that he/ she agrees with a particular author on an idea they would wish to express. Below are some of the types of plagiarisms that people commit during writing.
Word-by-word plagiarism
In this form, an individual may begin with a few words of his own. After a student copies from a different source without either attributing the author of the material or inserting quotation marks. As such, a student is required to copy the text, and inserting quotation marks and parenthesis that indicated the name of the author, year of publication, or the page that contains the copied content. Alternatively, one can paraphrase the phrase containing the content that the writer would wish to express, and cite it. At times, a reader may lose his/her interest in reading work that contains many words that were copied directly from the source. Besides, it makes one work clumsy and my result to earning low grades. On the contrary, one can quote a phrase in a situation that the meaning can be better explained from quoting the author directly. In fact, it would be worthless to do more quoting than writing in any kind of paper.
Plagiarizing through Paraphrase
This form of plagiarizing involves a writer changing a few words from the source through substitution. Often, while paraphrasing, one uses a technique that is valuable and rhetoric. For example, one is required to simplify the idea using own words, and attributing the same to the original source. The source has to be indicated in a parenthesis, to avoid direct quotations. However, paraphrase should not be employed in the manner to suggest that the writer is avoiding direct quotations, but helping in the production of new ideas. This form of plagiarism can be avoided to achieve Cooley idea of service-mindedness. Cooley provides that students from any discipline of study are required to submit work that is credible. From his professional view, the dental school imparts students with the knowledge that the career is a life commitment that involves the lives of other citizens. Therefore, it would be risky for a student to ignore research and plagiarize. As a result, the individual may fail to employ theory into practice during work.
Mosaic Plagiarism
It is considered as a sophisticated kind of plagiarism. A writer adds a few words to the lifted text and can italicize some of the words. As such, this kind of plagiarism may not be realized, as the author may forget to quote or parenthesize the source of the information copied. Often, a student may just add an introduction and conclusion, and copy the body of the text from a different source. In such a case, the writer would be required to paraphrase, and rewrite everything to make sense.
Self-plagiarism
This is a form of theft where a student reproduces his/her previous work. In other instances, one can refer this type as duplication, or repetition. Students can commit self- plagiarism by resubmitting work that was previously done.
Prevention of Plagiarism
In all research and academic papers, students are expected to produce original work. Similarly, one is required to make references to any idea that was related to work that was done by a different author2. Often the confusion on the ways of citing a paper may lead to an act of plagiarism. Often, one can be distracted on the way of beginning an idea, and the best way to end it. Alike, the one can like an idea to an author but may make a mistake on the best way to either quote or make reference to an author.
To begin with, to avoid cases of plagiarism, one ought to plan the paper from the introduction to the conclusion. The sources should be researched, and a plan on integrating their ideas to the paper should be established. Planning a paper entails developing the thesis statement that will help in generating ideas from the beginning to the end. Similarly, one can write an outline to provide the writer with the steps that he/she will follow throughout the paper. Through this process, one will be able to distinguish the ideas that he or she has formulated and those that were derived from the various sources.
Consulting one instructor is another move that can help one to avoid cases of plagiarism. For example, one can ask on the right method that can be used to cite sources properly. The instructor will be able to advise on the right methods that one can employ while citing sources. An instructor can provide a student with the best procedure that one use, to avoid a case of plagiarism. Besides, one can go through the sources, and establish a conversation of sources. Through the process, one can generate personal ideas that relate to those of the sources. Alike, one can take notes while reading through the sources, to identify the main ideas from the authors while formulating personal ideas at the same time. At this stage, it will be necessary to differentiate the ideas from the sources and personal ones. During the assessment of sources, it is necessary for the researcher to develop a page for references, to make citation easy on completion of the research. The sources may include journals, books, web addresses, and articles. When citing sources, one should be sure in to avoid any cases of ambiguity. Therefore, it is necessary to differentiate personal sources with those that were used to help in supporting personal thoughts. Additionally, it is critical to ensure that the sources indicated well. For example, one should not write an idea from Shakespeare and cite it as Chopin.
A confusion of authors may indicate that the writer has disorganized thoughts. In other instance, one may mix up characters from different books. This scenario may show that one was confused while generating ideas, and relating them to their names as shown in the books. Furthermore, a legitimate writer has to show a sense of understanding of paraphrasing. Copying directly from a source is considered an academic theft.
Therefore, one ought to differentiate between the ideas of the author and put them in their own words. Similarly, one is required to use quality sources to support personal ideas. In all institutions of learning, students are required to provide original work. Therefore, it is necessary to do ample research to have wider knowledge on an idea and to expound on them using the authors’ opinions. In other cases, an instructor may ask students to provide their sources before beginning to write their paper, to help the student understand the assignment and its requirements. In many cases, students fail to cite web information, while they have included the author in work. Therefore, it would be necessary for the writer to know the place where the author got their information from. In the event of a difficult citation, one can consult sites such as Purdue owl, Cite for Me, and others that can help one to cite different authors.
Conclusion
In conclusion, plagiarism is one of the serious academic offenses, and it is all learning institutions. Usually, students and authors commit different types of plagiarism. Some of the forms of plagiarism include mosaic, paraphrase, word-for- word, and source plagiarism. Often plagiarism occurs if a student fails to understand the instructions of the assignment. In other instances, a student may become lazy, and choose to copy paste, to cover up for his/her laziness. Additionally, students may fail to attend to their lecture, and as a result, the student may decide to plagiarize work to earn any a grade for submitting the assignment. According to ADA report, professionalism can only be achieved if one portrays honesty in both theory and practice. Similarly, Cooley provided his opinion in the seriousness of plagiarism in a field such as dentistry. He explained that without integrity, responsibility, service-mindedness, respect, and honesty, an individual might fail to provide the right services to the society. Nevertheless, some of the plagiarisms offenses may be attributed to the fact that one may forget to attribute the written ideas to the source. Plagiarism can be avoided in some ways. First, a one can consult with his/her instructor on the steps and the technique that one can use while approaching the provided assignment.
Planning a paper is one of the critical steps that can help one to develop an interesting paper. While establishing the right ideas, one can research on information from credible sources on the topic of assignment. In the event of any difficulties, one can consult with his/her instructor. Equally, one can search from websites that contain information on doing citations for papers. Paraphrasing is another aspect that can prevent one from committing plagiarism. However, one should not change words but expound on the idea of the original author. At times, it may require one to quote the author directly, especially in literary papers. Additionally, one would be required to establish the right procedure of quoting from an author, as they differ from one discipline to another. Nevertheless, plagiarism is a vice that needs to be reduced at all costs. Besides, it is significant for instructors to inform students about the dangers of committing plagiarism, and the various ways that they can avoid it. On the other hand, students should maintain professionalism in their class assignments, as it mirrors the kind of performance they will provide in their future careers.

Bibliography
American Dental Association, “ADA Principles Of Ethics And Code Of Professional Conduct”. Ada.Org. Last modified 2016. Accessed February 11, 2017. http://www.ada.org/~/media/ADA/Publications/Files/ADA_Code_of_Ethics_2016.pdf?la=en.

Dental Ethics, “Dental Ethics”. Dentalethics.Org. Last modified 2017. Accessed February 11, 2017. http://dentalethics.org/#Professionalism.

Dr. Cooley, Dr. “My view: Professionalism In Dentistry”. Ada.Org. Last modified 2016. Accessed February 11, 2017. http://www.ada.org/en/publications/ada-news/viewpoint/my-view/2016/june/myview-professionalism-in-dentistry.

Ethics.org, “National Business Ethics Survey® – Ethics & Compliance Initiative (ECI)”. Ethics.Org. Last modified 2017. Accessed February 11, 2017. http://ethics.org/research/nbes.

Plagiarism.org, “What Is Plagiarism?” Plagiarism.Org – Best Practices For Ensuring Originality In Written Work. Last modified 2017. Accessed February 11, 2017. http://www.plagiarism.org/plagiarism-101/what-is-plagiarism.

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