Thomas Hobbes and the external relations of states

"Thomas Hobbes and the External Relations of States," Murray Forsyth. The British Journal of International Studies, Volume 5, Number 3 (1979), pp. 196-209.
Hobbes' view on the nature of mankind is examined by the author. He divides Hobbes' state of nature into two parts in this article. The first is a state in which mankind are totally and solely ruled by their own judgment and reason, as well as self-directed passions. The second is a condition in which men are governed by laws of reason in such a way that they consider the rights of others as well as their own. The article contains a wealth of information that will help you understand Hobbes' perspective on the nature of humanity.  Bloom, Peter. ""Capitalism’s cynical leviathan: Cynicism, totalitarianism, and Hobbes in modern capitalist regulation." International Journal of Žižek Studies 2, no. 1 (2008).

The author does well in bringing Hobbes’ view of capitalism into the modern society. In particular, the author notes that Hobbes’ combination of cynicism and totalitarianism resonates with the discourses of capitalist control in the contemporary political environment. Another point that comes into play in the journal article is how Hobbesian liberalism and today’s capitalism allow the reinforcement and sustenance of totalitarian power relationships. Evidently, the author to some extent sheds light on Hobbes’ view of liberty.

Pettit, Philip. "Liberty and Leviathan." politics, philosophy & economics 4, no. 1 (2005): 131-151.

In this article, the author notes that Hobbes made a distinct addition to the freedom discussion on two fronts. First, he persuaded successors that people’s freedom is reduced only the power of interference. Second, he convinced them that exercising the power of interference leads to the reduction of freedom in the same way regardless of the political system. Therefore, whether it was a dictatorial regime or a republican democracy, freedom will be reduced in the same way in the case power of interference is exercised.

Nagel, Thomas. "The problem of global justice." Philosophy & public affairs 33, no. 2 (2005): 113-147.

The author talks about Hobbes’ idea of global justice. He notes that government is necessary for global justice. Hobbes’ principles of justice, according to the author are based on collective self-interest and not moral premises. He also points out that the best form of sovereignty as perceived by Hobbes is an absolute monarchy. It is the view of Hobbes that people cannot pursue justice for themselves. Therefore, sovereign power is necessary for peace and justice. This source is essential in understanding Hobbes’ perception of justice.

De Roover, Jakob, and S. N. Balagangadhara. "John Locke, Christian liberty, and the predicament of liberal toleration." Political Theory 36, no. 4 (2008): 523-549.

The authors focus on Locke’s theory of toleration where they note that the philosopher’s idea has shaped secular liberalism. In the article, Locke’s political philosophy is linked to the liberal secular state. The authors also compare liberal toleration to a theological model that divided the society into spiritual kingdom and spiritual kingdom. The article also points out that liberal toleration becomes incoherent when it has to accommodate other cultures.

Locke, John, and William Popple. A letter concerning toleration. New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1955.

In this Locke’s letter translated by Popple, the philosopher offers his view on mutual toleration of Christians as they interact with one another. In the letter, the issue of justice emerges. In particular, Locke notes that in the case there are public justice laws, violations have to be checked through fear of punishment that may consist of deprivation of civil goods or interests. The source has various points that depict Locke’s opinion in regards to justice.

Biondi, Darick. Capitalism and Morality. 2007. (accessed March 21, 2017).

The author notes that Locke’s philosophy is associated with capitalism because of his emphasis on private property and minimal rights. Furthermore, the article differentiates the views of Locke and Hobbes on the state of nature. He notes that according to Locke, the state’s role is the protection of its citizen’s right to life, property, and liberty. This source is necessary because it analyses the views of the two theorists.

O'Toole, John Winfred. The Right of Revolution: An Analysis of John Locke and Thomas Hobbes' Social Contact Theories. 2011. (accessed March 21, 2017).

First, the author notes that the right to revolution is a curious topic the social contract theories of the two philosophers. The paper examines the similar and differing views of the two philosophers in regards to the right to revolution. The paper is thus an essential contribution to understanding the views of Locke and Hobbes.

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