The paper aimed at discusses the Microorganisms that cause Gingivitis.

The aim of this paper is to explore the microorganisms that cause gingivitis. The introduction to the essay is presented in the article. It explains the definition of Gingivitis, the signs and effects of the condition, how the illness affects patients, how physicians diagnose it, and some of the diseases that arise from the infection.
Dental infections are widespread, affecting approximately 97% of the population, and gingivitis is caused by bacterial biofilms that grow in the teeth around the gums. Gingivitis is a form of periodontal disease that is described as a non-destructive condition that develops around the teeth (James 2016). The disease is a common, and mild illness that occurs around the teeth. The illness causes irritations, irritation, redness, and swelling of the human gingiva. If not treated well Gingivitis can cause periodontitis and tooth damage. Then diseases arise because of long effects of plaque deposits on the human teeth. Plaque is made of mucus, bacteria, and food waste that erects on the open sections of the teeth. Bleeding is the primary symptom of Gingivitis, and swelling, soreness, pain, and trouble in chewing are other signs of the disease. There are several causes of the disease, but the most common one is the pathogenic microorganisms in between the teeth (Stephen 2016). According to (James 2016), gingivitis is reversible, while regeneration after destruction after periodontitis is not predictable. Periodontium includes the cementum, periodontal ligament, alveolar bone, and the gingiva. On the other hand, periodontitis includes loss of connection of periodontal tissues. The dental disease is usually not diagnosed and treated by physicians but they result from poor hygiene. According to Infection of the teeth like the periodontal, gingivae, ligament and alveolar bone can increase to contiguous constructions like aspiration pneumonia, osteomyelitis of the jaw, sinusitis (James 2016). The paper will present the Microorganisms that cause Gingivitis in the teeth. Microorganisms that cause GingivitisDental caries forms the small elements that make on the smooth surface of the teeth. It also appears in the fissures of the teeth. Furthermore, the pits turn out to form necrotic centers. As mentioned earlier, the gums swell, become red and very tender. At times, the gums even bleed while brushing. Whereby, The Inflammation swells turn red and even bleed when brushing, and the patient will always say the gums are sore(James 2016). The acute necrotizing, ulcerative gingivitis or trench mouth is a severe form of gingivitis, and symptoms are fever, lymphadenopathy, halitosis, malaise, and very painful characterized with necrotic gray to black ulcerations. The Microbial species connected with gingival are Streptococcus sanguis and Fusobacterium naviform. The bacteria included in the etiology of gingivitis are Fusobacterium, Actinomyces, Treponema, Streptococcus, and Bacteroides. The pathogenesis of Gingivitis the initial, early, and established stages and all these phases have their characteristics (James 2016). The mouth consists of 200 to 300 bacterial varieties, but only a small number takes part in the development of gingivitis. The tissues that surround the teeth provide normal support for the teeth functioning. The periodontium consists of the periodontal ligament, alveolar bone, and cementum. Gingiva is divided into interdental gingiva, the marginal, and the attached. The marginal gingiva creates the coronal border of the gingiva that borders the teeth. The crown enamel constitutes the cementoenamel junction, and it is the position where the crown enamel and the root cementum meet. The Marginal gingiva is a normal tissue that extends 2mm coronal to the cemento-enamel junction. The gingival sulcus is the place linking the marginal gingiva and the peripheral tooth shell (Philstorm, Michalowicz and Johnsons 2005).According to the National Institutes of Health, Gingivitis is caused by poor oral hygiene, uncontrolled diabetes, and systematic illness like nutrient deficiencies, thyroid disorders, or HIV infection. Use of some medications like phenytoin used to control seizures, bismuth used to treat upset stomach and diarrhea, birth control pills, and rough-edged fillings as well as the ill-fitting or contaminated mouthpiece of equipment. In addition to this, the changes in hormones can cause greater gum sensitivity, this explains why pregnant women at times get gingivitis, and the sickness is common during puberty. The bacteria found on top of the teeth contribute to the development of Gingivitis and the help in educating people to clean their teeth has proved to be ineffective in most public health contexts. Many studies have been conducted to explain the causes of Gingivitis and these studies range from cultural studies to modern studies. The findings of these studies indicate that putative pathogens, which include tenneralla, tereponema denticola, and porphyromanas contribute to the increase of Gingivitis. Other usually accompanies the infection like collagenase, proteases, and fibrinolysis. Another type of species is the actinobacillus and actinomycetemcomitans associated with the Gingivitis especially among the young adults (Philstorm, Michalowicz, and Johnsons (2015). The herpes virus has also been put to be a species triggering the infection during the pathogenesis stages. Thus, a verity of microogernisimgs can contribute to the increases in the disease among the different individuals. People who smoke are likely to have periodontitis than those who do not smoke. The smokers are likely to get gingivitis, and the effects of long-term infection are similar to that of cancer patients. The patients with HIV can present a distinctive form of periodontitis described as necrotizing gingivitis together with poor hygiene, poor feeding that contributes to the increase in gingivitis. Currently, a few people with HIV develop the necrotizing gingivitis. In addition to this lack of vitamin C has contributed to the increase of gingivitis among people. Lack of vitamin C contributed to the development of scurvy, which adds to the reduced levels of the collagen. Extensive epidemiological studies indicate the effect of periodontal inflammation. A lot of evidence also indicates an increase in osteoporosis contributes to the development of periodontal brake down. People with diabetes are also likely to have the gingivitis problems. However, people with well-controlled diabetes are not likely to have the diseases (James 2016). Emotional and psychological stress also contributes to the increase in gingivitis among people. For instants traumatic life events that contribute the increased level of stress makes them fail to control themselves and this can contribute to periodontal infections. Kistler Booth Bradshaw and Wade (2013) notes that the first model used to test gingivitis indicate that changes occur in the microbial bacterial morphotypes present in plaque during the change to gingivitis. These researchers reported that initial plaque in well-being consisted of a moderately simple infectious community controlled by Gram-positive cocci and poles. As plaque mature, and gingivitis progressed, the Gram-negative rods, fusiform, filaments, spirilla, and spirochetes also increased. The experimental gingivitis studies using culture also confirmed the findings, as well as provided more knowledge concerning the specific microbial species existing in plaque. It was also discovered that half of the microorganisms found in the mouth. Thus, cultural studies cannot provide a comprehensive explanation of the microbiota in experimental gingivitis. The use of culture-independent molecular methods leads to the development of knowledge of oral bacteria in the understanding of increased gingivitis. Davis et al. (2013) conducted a cross-sectional survey of bacterial varieties in plaque from customer-owned dogs with vigorous gingiva. The researchers aimed at identifying bacterial types in the canine inscription that are drastically linked with well-being, gingivitis, and mild periodontitis. In the study, sub gingival plaque tests were gathered from 223 dogs, with healthy gingiva, mild periodontitis, and gingivitis together with 72 to 77 experiments per health situation. The researchers discovered that Porphyromonas was the biggest genius in all stages of stages of illness, predominantly in well-being accompanied by Moraxella and Bergeyella. The Peptostreptococcus, Peptostreptococcaceae, and Actinomyces were the most copious types in slight periodontitis. Using the Logistic regression analysis, the researchers discovered the classes from all of these types that were considered related to gingivitis, health, or mild periodontitis. The Principal component analysis indicated distinct group profiles in fitness and disease. Some of the species identified indicated similarities in well-being and periodontal sickness in individuals. The in good physical shape canine plaque was discovered to be controlled by Gram-negative bacterial variety, while the Gram-positive anaerobic variety dominates in the disease.The new classical experiments provide an explanation on the pathogenesis of gingivitis, and the main cause of the disease is oral hygiene. Thus, the observations have been confirmed repeatedly in experiments. There is a relationship between gingivitis and plaque bacteria because the prevention of the bacterial contributes to the increase in gingivitis. Findings also indicate that the plaque causes gingivitis both in children and in adults. Recent longitudinal findings in human populations indicate that the cause of gingivitis includes oral hygiene (Richard et al. 1981).In the early stages of gingivitis, the bacteria found in plaque buildup around the gums, and become inflamed, as well as bleed during tooth brushing. The gums are usually irritated, but the teeth usually remain firm in the teeth sockets. At this stage, the bone is not destroyed and the tissue is not damaged. As mentioned earlier, Gingivitis develops to periodontitis in case the infection is not treated (Richard et al. 1981). An individual experiencing periodontitis, the inner layer of the gum together with bone moves away from the teeth and the sockets. The spaces located on the teeth and gums gather germs and are infected with the bacteria. The immune system struggles with the microorganisms as the plaque increases and grows around the gums. The bacteria produce toxins or poisons in the body and the plaque, the enzymes that fight infections in the body break down the bone, as well as the connective tissue that holds the tooth in the socket. As the illness advances, the sockets deepen, and the gum, bone, and tissue are damaged. When the gum and bone are damaged, the teeth are no longer fastened in place and became loose and tooth loss can easily occur. Thus, the gum sickness is the principal instigate of tooth loss in grown-ups (Richard et al. 1981).In a study conducted by Blue, Kim, and Elaine (2011), most nurses undergoing training, lack oral hygiene knowledge. They also do not know how the information obtained influenced the chronic kidney diseases. These researchers concluded that there was a need for incorporated disciplinary oral health education that might contribute to the improve outcome as well as improved oral hygiene. The study supports the clinical dental care to reduce the increase in oral infections. Osso and Kanani (2013) conducted a study to determine if the use of Antiseptic mouth rinses control the increase of gingivitis. An Electronic database search was conducted using PubMed and Google Scholar to identify the articles that compared the effectiveness of four commercially advertised antiseptic mouth solutions inconsistent with active constituents. These researchers discovered that mouth rinses have gluconate, methyl salicylate, chlorhexidine or basic oils and offer clinically meaningful anti– plaque and anti–gingivitis advantages. The researchers also discovered that Cetylpyridinium chloride offered only reduced clinical advantages compared to the dormant control mouth rinse. The Chlorhexidine, essential oils, and cetylpyridinium are suitable for controlling the spread of gingivitis in humans. However, there is limited information on the records are accessible on the consequences of the mouth rinse on the reduction of gingivitis. The researchers concluded that on the success of antibacterial mouth solutions in bringing down gingivitis and plaque as an additional home care remedy.Bolivar et., al (2012) conducted a study to record and compare bacteriological range in oral tests from youths with or without acute necrotizing gingivitis or acute noma. The researchers discovered that the unhealthy noma or acute necrotizing gingivitis in addition to in good physical shape site bacterial groups are made up of parallel bacteria, but present different findings in the occurrence of a controlled group of phylotypes. The increased numbers of Prevotella intermedia and supporters of the Peptostreptococcus type are linked to the disease. Finally, the researchers did not get a clear cut between noma and non-noma libraries. The researchers concluded that there were similarities between the acute necrotizing gingivitis and noma experiments. Furthermore, the disease can evolve from acute necrotizing gingivitis in some children. The study also revealed that verbal microbiological molds linked with acute necrotizing gingivitis and noma. However, no infection was found in a precise infection-triggering instrument.Treatment procedure in treating Gingivitis The dentist review Gingivitis from the patient’s previous medical history and circumstances that may add to the symptoms. It is important for an individual to examine the inflammation of gums and signs of plaque(Humes, 2000). Removing the sources of the infection is the best way of treating Gingivitis. Whereby, brushing infected teeth with a fluoride dentifrice will reduce disease development and can help teeth restoration. The electric toothbrushes have benefits because they help in proper cleaning than the normal toothbrush. Everyday flossing together with brushing will lower plaque and microbial counts. Moreover, researchers not that brushing then rinsing with chlorhexidine or mouthwash solutions can have improved results than brushing and flossing(Humes, 2000).The Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs present suitable management for the condition because they provide a resolution of swelling when the teeth are cleaned and scaled to cut off plaque. Currently, some herbal remedies have proved to be effective in upgrading periodontal illness. Once a dentist removes a plaque it is important for the patient to conduct regular brushing, which will reduce the increase or the increase of plaque (Humes, 2000). Antibiotics might be used to treat the severe gingivitis. The antibiotics are the drugs that help the human body’s immune system fight microbial infection, and the antibiotics have proved to reduce the increase of plaque among human beings (Humes, 2000). Apart from this, the doctors can also perform the gingival enlargement where calcium channel blockers are induced, and regular checkups to ensure proper treatment is conducted around the teeth. Chronic gingivitis is usually conducted by the reduction of oral microorganisms, associated fossilized and noncalcified residues(Humes, 2000). People with lifelong gingivitis, but lacking major calculus respond to therapeutic schedule that entails improved individual plaque self-control. However, self-control has posed challenges because many patients are never motivated to take control of themselves (Humes, 2000). Furthermore, Clinical experiments also signify that self- managed plaque control schedules only, without recurring professional support, are unpredictable in offering long-term self-consciousness of gingivitis. Most people with gingivitis are inflicted with calculus or additional related limited factors like the defective teeth restorations, which affect with personal oral cleanliness, as well as the ability to remove the bacterial plaque from the teeth. A suitable treatment producer for these patients is usually obtained when the personal plaque control measures are performed together with the professional removal of calculus plaque together with the local contributing factors(Humes, 2000).Some of the diseases caused gingivitisUntreated gingivitis can lead to serious contamination described as periodontitis that in turn contributes to the tooth, lose. The development of periodontitis does not indicate any sings but leads to the destruction of the teeth. The changes that an individual might experience over time include increased bleeding from the gums especially when brushing the teeth, bad breath, lengthening of the teeth, possibly pain and the positioning of the teeth in the jaws. As mentioned earlier, if periodontal inflammation is not controlled the patient might lose the teeth. Other problems the individual is likely to experience include drifting of the teeth, painful abscesses, and this might interfere with the chewing of food. The patient might also experience the unattractive expansion of the teeth with revealing of the roots, which results from gum recession (Osso and Kanani, 2013). Just like gingivitis, periodontitis can be treated using oral hygiene cleaning, professional cleaning, Antibiotic therapy, Reassessment, Corrective treatments, Aftercare – supportive periodontal therapy and regular appointments to ensure the disease does not progress to higher stages that affect the teeth. In conclusion, the paper has described the Microorganisms that cause Gingivitis. Gingivitis is swelling of the gum that does not result in clinical damage the diseases are reversible, and treatment procedures include the reduction of the etiologic features that reduce, or eliminate swelling allowing the gingival tissue to heal. Personal hygiene can be used to preventing re-initiation of inflammation. Untreated Gingivitis leads Periodontitis, which is the swelling of the gingiva, and the neighboring attachment system characterized by loos of teeth. Periodontitis can be treated by anti-infective treatment method, which includes the removal of removal of etiologic factors. Regenerative therapy, which includes restoration of structures destroyed by the infection, can also be used in treating the disease.Reference Bolivar I, Whiteson K, Stadelmann B, Baratti-Mayer D, Gizard Y, et al. (2012) Bacterial Diversity in Oral Samples of Children in Niger with Acute Noma, Acute Necrotizing Gingivitis, and Healthy Controls Journal. Pntd 6(3) 10-137Blue, C., Kim, I., and Elaine D. (2011) Raising Oral Health Awareness AmongNephrology Nurses The Journal of Dental Hygiene. 85 (2), 151-155Davis IJ, Wallis C, Deusch O, Colyer A, Milella L, (2013) A Cross-Sectional Survey of Bacterial Species in Plaque from Client Owned Dogs with Healthy Gingiva, Gingivitis or Mild Periodontitis. Journal. Pone. 8(12): 112-200Humes, H. David (2000). Kelley's Textbook of Internal Medicine. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins,.James S (2016) Gingitivity clinical presatation. Available at JO, Booth V, Bradshaw DJ, Wade WG (2013) Bacterial Community Development in Experimental Gingivitis. Journal. Pone 8(8): e71227. doi:10.1371/Richard R.Ranney,DOS,MSBernardF.Debski,DMD,MSJohnG.Tew,Ph (1981)Pathogenesisof gingivitis and periodontaldisease in children and young adults. The American Academy of Pedodontics. 3 (2) Special IssueRichard, R., Renny, F., Debski D., M, John, D. (1981) Pathogenesis Of Gingivitis Band Periodontal Diseases in Children and Young Adults. Pediatric Dentistry. The American Academy of Pedodontics Vol 3 special issue Kenneth T. (2017) the normal bacterial Flora of humans available at, B, L., Michalowicz, B, S., and Johnsons, N. M. (2005) Periodontal diseases. Lancet. 19;366(9499), 1809-20.

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