This chapter presents research findings of the study carried out to investigate the impact of the Narcissism, Machiavellianism and Psychopathy personality on snob consumption behavior and the influence of the psychological antecedents producing snob effect and its association with the consumers’ dark personality. Descriptive statistics will be used to discuss the findings of this study.

4.2 Measure Reliability and Validation

A construct of the validity and reliability was assessed through procedures laid out by Noble and Smith (2015, p.34). Reliability refers to the consistency of measurement and is oftenly assessed using a test-retest reliability method. This includes similar items being measured through testing a diverse sample of individual questions. Using uniform testing procedures increases reliability. Reliability ensures internal consistency of the data collected (Noble and Smith 2015, p. 35; Koo and Li 2016, p.159-160). It also ensures the data has a given internal consistent pattern. When no pattern is found in the responses, this indicates that probably the test was too difficult and as a result the respondents’ respondent the questions randomly. A reliability analysis was done with the help of SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Scientists) using the Cronbach’s Alpha. This reliability estimate was measured using Cronbach Alpha coefficient (α). Schermer and Goffin (2018, p.113) recommends that instruments used in research should have reliability of at least 0.70 and above.

Table 4.1: Reliability Analysis

Scale

Cronbach's Alpha

Number of Items

Machiavellianism

0.904

8

Narcissism

0.880

6

Psychopathy

0.910

7

Status Seeking

Consumer Susceptibility to Normative Influence

Snob Value

Avoidance of similarity

0.937

0.956

0.891

0.953

4

12

1

5

A Cronbach’s Alpha value greater than 0.7 is considered a desirable threshold for benchmarking the internal consistency of the data collected (Csikszentmihalyi and Larson 2014, p.34; Heale and Twycross 2015, p.23). For this study, the Cronbach’s alpha reliability scores for the main study constructs were satisfactory, as these ranged from .88 to .953 as shown in Table 1. Path analysis was then carried out to check the validity of the questions. Path analysis is rather straight forward since its aim is to provide estimates of magnitude and significance of the hypothesized causal connections between the set of variables (Leung 2015, p.324). The questions used on this study had a Cronbach Alpha of 0.88-0.953. These values are >0.7 hence valid.

4.3 Demographic Information

This section presents the demographic information of the respondents. This information includes gender, age, income, ethnicity and level of education of the respondents.

Table 4.2: Gender of the respondents

Gender

Frequency

Percentage

Male

168

49.6

Female

171

50.4

Total

31

100

According to the table 4.2, majority of the respondents (50.4%) were females. Males were 49.6 %. This shows that Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) has employed more female employees as compared to male employees. Table 4.3 shows the age of the respondents depending on their age-group. Most of the respondents, 49.3% belonged to the age bracket of 25-34, age bracket 18-24 was 16.5%, 35-44 was 16.2%, 45-54 was 9.4%, 55-64 was 7.1% and 65-74 was 1.5% . It is worth noting that there was no respondent with below 18 years and beyond 75 years.

Table 4.3 Age of the respondents

Age

Frequency

Percentage

Under 18

0

0

18-24

25-34

35-44

45-54

55-64

65-74

75-84

56

167

55

32

24

5

0

16.5

49.3

16.2

9.4

7.1

1.5

0

Total

339

100

Table 4.4: Income of the respondents

Income

Frequency

Percentage

Less than $10,000

83

24.5

$10,000-$19,999

$20,000-$29,999

$30,000-$39,999

$40,000-$49,999

$50,000-$59,999

$60,000 - $69,999

$70,000 - $79,999

$80,000 - $89,999

$90,000 - $99,999

$100,000 - $149,999

More than $150,000

45

30

49

34

30

15

19

15

7

9

3

13.3

8.8

14.5

10.0

8.8

4.4

5.6

4.4

2.1

2.7

0.9

Total

339

100

From the table 4.4, majority of the respondents (24.5%) were earning an income of less than $10,000, followed by those earning $10,000-$19,999 (13.3%). 0.9% of the respondents earned an income of more than $150,000. Table 4.5 shows distribution of ethnicity among the respondents. Majority of the respondents were White (55.5%) followed by Hispanic/Latino individuals (32.7%). There was no Asian respondent. There were 5.9% Black American, 3.5% from native Hawai and lastly, American Indians were 2.4%. Table 4.6 shows the level of education distribution. 50.4% respondents had a bachelor’s degree, followed by 17.7% with a Masters’s degree, 22.1% had gone to college, 6.2 %in high school. 2.1% of the respondents had a professional degree as the highest level of education. Few respondents 0.3% had not joined high school.

Table 4.5: Ethnicity of the respondents

Ethnicity

Frequency

Percentage

White

188

55.5

Black or African American

American Indian or Alaska Native

Hispanic or Latino

Asian

Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander

Other

20

8

111

0

12

0

5.9

2.4

32.7

0

3.5

0

Total

339

100

Table 4.6: Highest Level of education

Level of Education

Frequency

Percentage

Less than High School

1

0.3

High School Graduate

Some college

Bachelor’s Degree

Master’s Degree

Professional Degree

Doctorate

21

75

171

60

7

4

6.2

22.1

50.4

17.7

2.1

1.2

Total

339

100

4.4 Correlation

Correlation was run among the construct and control variables in order to see how they are related.

Table 4.7: Table showing Correlation

Correlations

Marchiavellia

Narcissism

Psychopathy

AvoidanceofSimilarity

StatusSeeking

ConsumerSusceptibilitytoNormativeInfluence

Marchiavellia

Pearson Correlation

1

.625**

.723**

.532**

.616**

.537**

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

N

339

339

339

339

339

339

Narcissism

Pearson Correlation

.625**

1

.723**

.679**

.759**

.703**

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

N

339

339

339

339

339

339

Psychopathy

Pearson Correlation

.723**

.723**

1

.704**

.681**

.611**

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

N

339

339

339

339

339

339

AvoidanceofSimilarity

Pearson Correlation

.532**

.679**

.704**

1

.677**

.627**

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

N

339

339

339

339

339

339

StatusSeeking

Pearson Correlation

.616**

.759**

.681**

.677**

1

.765**

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

N

339

339

339

339

339

339

ConsumerSusceptibilitytoNormativeInfluence

Pearson Correlation

.537**

.703**

.611**

.627**

.765**

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

N

339

339

339

339

339

339

SnobValue

Pearson Correlation

-.189**

-.241**

-.253**

-.208**

-.205**

-.223**

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

.000

N

339

339

339

339

339

339

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Correlation matrix

From the table, SD3 personality show a positive correlation with the Snob behavior antecedents’. The same applies to the snob behavior variables (see Table 4.7). Avoidance of Similarity and Machiavellianism have a correlation of 0.532; Avoidance of Similarity and Narcissism, 0.679; Avoidance of Similarity and Psychopathy, 0.704; Status seeking and Machiavellianism, 0.616; Status seeking and Narcissism, 0.759; status seeking and psychopathy, 0.681; CSNI and Machiavellianism, 0.537; CSNI and Narcissism,0.703 and lastly CSNI and psychopathy.

4.5 Regression

Regression analysis was carried out to test how these construct and the snob behavior variables differed.

Table 4.8: Regression analysis of Dark Triad Personality and Consumer need for uniqueness.

Model Summaryb

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

.746a

.556

.552

1.14491

a. Predictors: (Constant), Psychopathy, Marchiavellia, Narcissism

b. Dependent Variable: AvoidanceofSimilarity

ANOVAa

Model

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

550.262

3

183.421

139.930

.000b

Residual

439.121

335

1.311

Total

989.383

338

b. Predictors: (Constant), Psychopathy, Marchiavellia, Narcissism

Table 4.8 shows the regression analysis. The R value of this analysis is 0.746. The R squared value is 0.556. This table indicates that there is a strong relationship between avoidance of similarity as a snob behavior and the SD3. The regression model is statistical significant since it is 0.000 which is < 0.05.

Table 4.9: Regression analysis of Dark Triad Personality and Consumer need for status seeking

Model Summaryb

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

.789a

.622

.619

.83421

a. Predictors: (Constant), Psychopathy, Marchiavellia, Narcissism

b. Dependent Variable: StatusSeeking

ANOVAa

Model

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

384.418

3

128.139

184.134

.000b

Residual

233.127

335

.696

Total

617.546

338

a. Dependent Variable: StatusSeeking

b. Predictors: (Constant), Psychopathy, Marchiavellia, Narcissism

Table 4.9 shows the regression analysis. The R value of this analysis is 0.789. The R squared value is 0.622. This table indicates that there is a strong relationship between avoidance of similarity as a snob behavior and the SD3. The regression model is statistical significant since it is 0.000 which is < 0.05().

Table 4.10: Regression analysis of Dark Triad Personality and Consumer Susceptibility to Normative Influence

Model Summaryb

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

.721a

.520

.516

1.03619

a. Predictors: (Constant), Psychopathy, Marchiavellia, Narcissism

b. Dependent Variable: ConsumerSusceptibilitytoNormativeInfluence

ANOVAa

Model

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

389.478

3

129.826

120.915

.000b

Residual

359.689

335

1.074

Total

749.167

338

a. Dependent Variable: ConsumerSusceptibilitytoNormativeInfluence

b. Predictors: (Constant), Psychopathy, Marchiavellia, Narcissism

Table 4.10 shows the regression analysis. The R value of this analysis is 0.721. The R squared value is 0.520. This table indicates that there is a strong relationship between avoidance of similarity as a snob behavior and the SD3. The regression model is statistical significant since it is 0.000 which is < 0.05.

4.6 Moderation analysis

Table 4.11: Moderated Regression analysis of Dark Triad Personality and Consumer Susceptibility to Normative Influence

Model Summary

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

.791a

.626

.622

1.05226

a. Predictors: (Constant), March_Narc_Psych_Consumer_need_for_uniqueness, machscore, narcissismscore, psychopathyscore

ANOVAa

Model

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

619.561

4

154.890

139.887

.000b

Residual

369.822

334

1.107

Total

989.383

338

a. Dependent Variable: Avoidanceofsimilarityscore

b. Predictors: (Constant), March_Narc_Psych_Consumer_need_for_uniqueness, machscore, narcissismscore, psychopathyscore

Table 4.11 shows the moderation regression analysis. The R value of this analysis is 0.791. The R squared value is 0.520. The regression model is statistical significant since it is 0.000 which is < 0.05.

Table 4.12: Moderated Regression analysis of Dark Triad Personality and status seeking characteristics

Model Summary

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

.818a

.669

.665

.78179

a. Predictors: (Constant), March_Narc_Psych_status_seeking, machscore, narcissismscore, psychopathyscore

ANOVAa

Model

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

413.406

4

103.352

169.097

.000b

Residual

204.139

334

.611

Total

617.546

338

a. Dependent Variable: statusseekingscore

b. Predictors: (Constant), March_Narc_Psych_status_seeking, machscore, narcissismscore, psychopathyscore

Table 4.12 shows the moderation regression analysis. The R value of this analysis is 0.818. The R squared value is 0.669. The regression model is statistical significant since it is 0.000 which is < 0.05.

Table 4.13: Moderated Regression analysis of Dark Triad Personality and Consumer Susceptibility to Normative Influence

Model Summary

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

.775a

.600

.595

.94730

a. Predictors: (Constant), March_Narc_Psych_consumer_susceptibility, machscore, narcissismscore, psychopathyscore

ANOVAa

Model

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

449.444

4

112.361

125.211

.000b

Residual

299.723

334

.897

Total

749.167

338

a. Dependent Variable: consumersusceptibilitynormativeinfluencescore

b. Predictors: (Constant), March_Narc_Psych_consumer_susceptibility, machscore, narcissismscore, psychopathyscore

Table 4.13 shows the moderation regression analysis. The R value of this analysis is 0.775. The R squared value is 0.600. The regression model is statistical significant since it is 0.000 which is < 0.05

Table 4.14: Moderated Regression analysis of Dark Triad Personality and Gender difference

Model Summary

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

.740a

.548

.542

.339

a. Predictors: (Constant), March_Narc_Psych_Gender, machscore, narcissismscore, psychopathyscore

ANOVAa

Model

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

46.428

4

11.607

101.178

.000b

Residual

38.316

334

.115

Total

84.743

338

a.Dependent Variable: Please indicate your gender.

b. Predictors: (Constant), March_Narc_Psych_Gender, machscore, narcissismscore, psychopathyscore

Table 4.14 shows the moderation regression analysis. The R value of this analysis is 0.740. The R squared value is 0.548. The regression model is statistical significant since it is 0.000 which is < 0.05

Table 4.15: Moderated Regression analysis of Dark Triad Personality and cultural differences

Model Summary

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

.878a

.770

.767

.24001

a. Predictors: (Constant), March_Narc_Psych_Ethnicity, psychopathyscore, narcissismscore, machscore

ANOVAa

Model

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

64.500

4

16.125

279.923

.000b

Residual

19.240

334

.058

Total

83.740

338

a. Dependent Variable: Ethnicitycoded

b. Predictors: (Constant), March_Narc_Psych_Ethnicity, psychopathyscore, narcissismscore, machscore

Table 4.15 shows the moderation regression analysis. The R value of this analysis is 0.878. The R squared value is 0.770. The regression model is statistical significant since it is 0.000 which is < 0.05

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS

There were a total of 339 respondents who were involved in this study. A validity and reliability test was conducted on the questionnaire and measurement scales. The Cronbach Alpha value was 0.88 to 0.953. This value was greater than 0.7 which is the standard measure for a reliable data collection tool and questions. Majority of the respondents were male followed by female respondents. Table 4.7 reports on the correlation and significance of the main study variables. Correlation analysis revealed that Narcissism was positively correlated with the snob behavior antecedents (consumer need for uniqueness (CNFU), status seeking and Consumer susceptibility to normative influence (CSNI) (r= 0.679. p=.000, r=0.759, p=.000 and r=0.703, p=.000 respectively). This suggested that individuals with narcissist traits or personality showed higher levels of snob behavior. According to Rogoza, Kwiatkowska and Kowalski (2018, p.105-106; Jones and Paulhus 2014, p.39), they are mostly concerned with their status. Similarly, Machiavellianism showed a positive correlation with all the snob behavior antecedents; antecedents (consumer need for uniqueness (CNFU), status seeking and Consumer susceptibility to normative influence (CSNI) (r= 0.532. p=.000, r=0.616, p=.000 and r=0.537, p=.000 respectively). These results suggest that individuals with Machiavellianism personality, which according to the demographic findings were mostly young adults (ages 25-34), were more likely to engage with snob behavior. Conversely, individuals with psychopathy personality showed higher levels of snob behavior hence positively correlated as shown in table 4.7 (consumer need for uniqueness (CNFU), status seeking and Consumer susceptibility to normative influence (CSNI) (r= 0.704. p=.000, r=0.681,p=.000 and r=0.611, p=.000 respectively).

Hypothesis 1 stated that “Narcissism will positively associate with snob consumption behavior”. This hypothesis has been tested through the bivariate correlation calculated and provided in table 4.7, Narcissism is seen to be positively correlated to snob behavior hence is significantly positively associated with the antecedents. Checking on the correlation table, CNFU (r=.679) has a lower positive correlation as compared to CSNI (r=.759) and status seeking (.703). This shows that individuals with a narcissist trait will tend to seek status more as well as have consumer susceptibility to normative influence (CSNI). Furnham, Richards and Paulhus (2013, p.204; Pabian De Becker and Vandebosch 2015, p.43) did a ten year review dark triad personalities. According to the scholars, the five factor model have been linked to the dark triad personalities (McKay and Tokar 2012, p.140; Ashton et al. 2010, p.734-735; Soto, Kronauer and Liang 2015, p.12). Dark triad personalities are negatively correlated with two of the five broad personality dimensions, which is agreeableness and conscientiousness. However, when the five facets are separated, distinctions among the dark triad personalities emerge (Soto and Kronauer 2015, p.25; Sutin and Terracciano 2016, p.105-107; Meere and Egan 2017, p.159). Narcissism is strongly associated with conscientiousness when the big five are separated. The two traits which have strong associations in narcissism are low modesty and low straightforwardness (Soto and Kronauer 2015, p.24; Nicholas et al. 2017, 114-115).

Hypothesis 2 and hypothesis 3 states that Machiavellianism will positively associate with snob consumption behavior and Psychopathy will positively associate with snob consumption behavior. This hypothesis has been tested through bivariate correlation as calculated in table 4.7. These analyses indicate that both Machiavellianism and psychopathy are positively correlated to snob consumption behavior (consumer need for uniqueness (CNFU), status seeking and Consumer susceptibility to normative influence (CSNI) (r= 0.532. p=.000, r=.616,p=.000 and r=.537, p=.000 for Machiavellianism and (consumer need for uniqueness (CNFU), status seeking and Consumer susceptibility to normative influence (CSNI) (r= .704. p=.000, r=.681,p=.000 and r=.611, p=.000 for psychopathy). Rauthmann (2012, p.1-2) Machiavellians and psychopaths oftenly behave in in an antagonistic manner in interpersonal relations. Rauthmann (2012, p.9) continues to state that dark triad traits are strong hence they oftenly share correlates. However, they do not demonstrate uniform social outcomes. Swiden (2013, p.34) adds that the dark triad personalities should be distinguished and considered as three separate traits. This is evident from the correlation results since each trait has its own correlation value even though all are significant (Statistics 2016, p.3).

Hypothesis 4(a) states that CNFU will positively moderate the impact of (a) narcissism, (b) Machiavellianism, (c) psychopathy on snob consumption behavior. From table 4.11, its R=.791 while the R square =.626. In this regression analysis, CNFU was the dependent variable while the SD3 personality traits were the independent variable. The results confirm the hypothesis that CNFU positively moderates the impact of Narcissism, Machiavellianism and Psychopathy. Checking the first regression analysis between CNFU and the personality traits show that R=.746 and R square was .556. One the moderating effect is added in the model, the values have gone higher showing a positive moderation effect of CNFU on SD3 personality traits on snob consumption behavior. Pabian, DeBacker and Vandebosch (2015, p.43) state that with consumers end up acquiring and showing material possessions’ for the reason to be differentiated from other people.

Hypothesis 4(b) states that status seeking will positively moderate the impact of (a) narcissism, (b) Machiavellianism, (c) psychopathy on snob consumption behavior. From table 4.12, it’s R=.818 while the R square =.669. In this regression analysis, status seeking was the dependent variable while the SD3 personality traits were the independent variable. The results confirm the hypothesis that status seeking positively moderates the impact of Narcissism, Machiavellianism and Psychopathy. Checking the first regression analysis between status seeking and the personality traits show that R=.789 and R square was .622. Once the moderating effect is added in the model, the R value has gone higher showing a positive moderation effect of status seeking on SD3 personality traits on snob consumption behavior.

Hypothesis 4(c) states that CSNI will positively moderate the impact of (a) narcissism, (b) Machiavellianism, (c) psychopathy on snob consumption behavior. From table, its R=.775 while the R square =.600. In this regression analysis, CSNI was the dependent variable while the SD3 personality traits were the independent variable. The results confirm the hypothesis that CSNI positively moderates the impact of Narcissism, Machiavellianism and Psychopathy. Checking the first regression analysis between CSNI and the personality traits show that R=.721 and R square was .520. Once the moderating effect is added in the model, the R value increases while the R square decreases. Thus we do not accept the hypothesis since from the results, there is evidence that CSNI moderates the model positively.

Hypothesis 5 states that gender differences will moderate the impact of (a) narcissism, (b) Machiavellianism, (c) psychopathy on snob consumption behavior. From table 4.14, R=.740 while the R square =.548. In this regression analysis, gender was the dependent variable while the SD3 personality traits were the independent variable. The regression analysis between gender and the personality traits show that R=.195 and R square was .038. These are very low values which show a very weak positive correlation between gender and the SD3 personality traits with the model explaining a 3.8% of the variation. When gender is added on the model as a moderating factor, the values increase thus confirming the hypothesis that gender positively moderates the impact of Narcissism, Machiavellianism and Psychopathy on snob consumption behavior.

Hypothesis 6 states that cultural differences will moderate the impact of (a) narcissism, (b) Machiavellianism, (c) psychopathy on snob consumption behavior. From table 4.15, R=.878 while the R square =.770. In this regression analysis, ethnicity was the dependent variable while the SD3 personality traits were the independent variable. The regression analysis between ethnicity and the personality traits show that R=.453 and R square was .205. These are very low values which show a very weak positive correlation between ethnicity and the SD3 personality traits with the model explaining a 20.5% of the variation. When ethnicity is added on the model as a moderating factor, the values increase thus confirming the hypothesis that cultural differences positively moderates the impact of Narcissism, Machiavellianism and Psychopathy on snob consumption behavior.

Regression analysis was then done on the various constructs and the snob consuming behavior. Table 4.8 shows regression analysis done on the three dark triad traits against consumer need for uniqueness. From the results, the R value is .746 and the R squared is .552. This shows a really strong positive relationship between the dark triad traits and consumer need for uniqueness. This means that dark triad traits have a major impact on increasing the snob consuming behavior, specifically consumer need for uniqueness (Chatterjee and Hadi 2015, p.4; Draper and Smith 2015, p.4-5). Having an R squared of .552 indicates that 55.2% of the total variation in the dependent variable can be explained by the independent variable. The p value for this equation is .000 which shows that the regression equation is significant and fits the data hence predicts the dependent variable.

Table 4.9 shows regression analysis conducted on status seeking and the dark triad traits. From the results, the R value is .789 and the R squared is .622. This shows a really strong positive relationship between the dark triad traits and status seeking variable. This means that dark triad traits have a major impact on increasing the snob consuming behavior, specifically status seeking behavior (Salman and Warraich 2016, p.79; McGinley, Yang and Zhang 2018, p.89; Cohen 2016, p.70). Having an R squared of .622 indicates that 62.2% of the total variation in the dependent variable can be explained by the independent variable (Chatterjee and Hadi 2015, p.4; Draper and Smith 2015, p.4-5). The p value for this equation is .000 which shows that the regression equation is significant and fits the data hence predicts the dependent variable.

Table 4.10 shows regression analysis conducted on CSNI and the dark triad traits. From the results, the R value is .721 and the R squared is .520. This shows a really strong positive relationship between the dark triad traits and CSNI variable. This means that dark triad traits have a major impact on increasing the snob consuming behavior, specifically consumer susceptibility to normative influence behavior. Having an R squared of .520 indicates that 652.0% of the total variation in the dependent variable can be explained by the independent variable. The p value for this equation is .000 which shows that the regression equation is significant and fits the data hence predicts the dependent variable (Chatterjee and Hadi 2015, p.4; Draper and Smith 2015, p.4-5). From these findings it is clear that dark triad traits have a major impact on snob consuming behavior. This has been shown through the high correlation figures. However, as put forth they both had different measures on which they influenced snob behavior. Influence of snob behavior led to the snob effect on individuals (Swiden 2013, p.25).

Conclusion and implications

In summary, the overall results of the study concludes that The result of the followings study revealed that each of the ten hypothesis has been accepting revealing that dark triad personality predecessor narcissism, Machiavellianism and Psychopathy have an influential impact on the snob consumption behavior of the people. Moreover, the analysis of the study also reveals that Consumer Need for Uniqueness (CNFU), status seeking, and Consumers’ Susceptibility to Normative influence (CSNI) significantly influence the dark triad personality of the customer encouraging them to purchase the products based on the snob appeal. This information will be useful to marketers as they formulate better strategies to use when marketing a product. It can also be useful to advertisers as they know where to advertise more depending on the traits shown by people within the region. Advertisers may enhance mark iden