The Formation of European Union

The formation of European Union dates back to 1945 when the countries in Europe developed the desire to have close ties and synergetic relations to protect against any risk both on security and economy. The ties boosted the economic stability of the block by improving businesses, contributions and subsidies to other countries before Brexit. The Brexit was the decision made by the United Kingdom to opt out of the European Union through voting which was reached after a cost-benefit analysis which revealed the nation was incurring many costs in the unified monetary body as compared to the benefits gained. Mainly, Brexit was fueled by the want of stopping free movement into the nation by immigrants who posed insecurity threats while also straining the country’s resources. Britain lost interest in their membership in the European Union which further aggravated into the voting and this meant the exiting of Britain from the consortium agreement.

                 EU interests in partnering with Britain

The European Union leaders have heard interest in partnering with Britain for the economic benefit of every member state and citizens (Ifelebuegu et al. 2017, p. 2148). Additional to that, the leadership of the economic block put keen interest on the movement of labor across the European Union and thus reluctant to the efforts of Britain of restricting the free flow of labor as immigrants through their Brexit strategy.

                       Catalysts for Brexit


The Brexit was triggered by the growing refugee and immigration case thereby threatening the security of the country and restraining its resources. These initiatives were drove by the fears of possible identity loss due to the flux of foreigners in the UK in search for a better life (Majone 2017, p. 10). The citizens of Britain noted that other nations in the block had a lot to benefit from the partnership thus straining the country's economy and resources; therefore, the need to break for autonomy.

Also, the move was triggered by the need to prohibit the free flow of people in Europe which was contributing to arise of immigrant situation. Especially, the increase if refugees from the middle- East who were viewed as accelerating a state of insecurity and straining resources. Again, predictable was tension builds up due to the new arrangement meant to restrict Britain’s tariff-free trade status with other members of the European Union (Ifelebuegu, Aidelojie " Acquah-Andoh 2017, p. 2143). Apparently, most of the Britons who voted to support the Brexit cited the anxiety and worries caused by the growing numbers of immigrants thereby threatening Britain’s identify due to the influx of immigrants (Ponzano 2016, p. 102). For instance, the growing population of Muslims in the United Kingdom has significantly grown causing anxiety and worries to the indigenous people.

The exit plan of UK from European Union was met with a lot of suspicion and mistrust because of the worrying finances and future trading related issues. Therefore, there was mounting disagreement between Uk and member states of EU who want Britain to settle every outstanding bill before formally exiting the block. Details of the bill include the pension payment to EU officials and costs of relocating the administration from London and the remaining EU budget commitments (Duff 2016, p. 80). All these demands of the EU to the United Kingdom most-definitely ignited conflicts and tension. The United Kingdom also observed that operating within EU cost them due to the numerous rules imposed on businesses derailing its investments and development as well as expensive membership fees.

          Consequences for Brexit to Britain and member states of EU

However, commentator predicted a tough time for Britain and equally challenging time for the other member states because of both economic and security significance Britain held in the EU block to include economic recessions (Majone 2017, p. 9). Besides, the development of Britain opting out of the deal was met with regrets and criticism from other member states. The decision of Britain to pull out of the European Union block had also consequences for the nation itself for many reasons (Majone 2017, p. 11). The United Kingdom could no longer enjoy free movements among other EU members as well as the opportunity cost of the benefits of the single market the EU represented.

Anxiety about Germany dominance

The decision of Britain on Brexit made other nations in the block to be worry and tensioned of Germany’s possible dominance of the block being an equally strong country. Consequently, this factor further strained the relationship between other member states and Germany because of mistrust and insecurity of its possible rise to the helm of the European Union (Duff 2016, p. 78). Equally, Germany did not take the decision positively citing the possibility of other nations in the European block turning against her to sabotage its trade relations and security. The Brexit move could be influential to other member states of European Union. Predictably, there will be a risk of other EU nations the following suit to withdraw from the block especially on seeing the benefits or gains the United Kingdom achieves through being autonomous and its stands on an issue like migration.

Relations strain

The exit of United Kingdom was also analyzed to trigger relation strain between Britain and the member states of EU and a period of uncertainty to establish connection and agreements thereby negatively impacting on business (Ponzano 2016, p. 99). The strain between the United Kingdom and other members of the European Union will be due to the potentiality of Europe losing the international esteem and attraction thereby limiting on its trade negotiations (Jackson " Shepotylo 2017, p. 126). The exit of Britain will also pose comfort-ability to other member states because of the reduction in competition occasioned by the absence of United Kingdom. Britain was the most significant trading partner with the European Union; therefore, its position will be left for scramble by lesser aggressive nations. Moreover, the Brexit meant relaxation of a hard stance of the European Union towards other issues like sanctions on other countries like Russia's.

Conflict of ideologies with Scotland

The departure of the United Kingdom from the European Union triggered disagreement pitting the UK against Scotland. Britain existing from the European Union will hurt Scotland's ambitions of gaining from the EU trading bloc (Modiano 2017, p. 324). The leadership of Scotland did not welcome the idea but, they had no powers to stop the process from happening. However, political and economic commentators predict the likelihood of Scotland voting to be separated from the United Kingdom in a bid to re-enter the European Union.

Worsening of immigrant Situation

There will be a potential of a serious political and economic strains between countries which have their citizens living and working in Britain. Example, Poland has nearly 1 million immigrants benefiting the stable economy of Britain, and therefore Brexit will mean the return of the migrants to their country thereby straining the systems and economy (Jackson " Shepotylo 2017, p. 125). Consequently, this matter will not go well with the victim countries resulting in a loss of trust and close friendship ties.

Economic tension

The UK is a significant trading partner with major players in the European trading bloc. Exiting of Britain will trigger tension and economic woes to its partners thus affecting their economy. Britain’s departure being one of the influential and economically stable nation will shake the ties and cohesion between the countries (Modiano 2017, p. 321). Furthermore, this action will occasion economic recession by reducing trade and investment of non-European union due to the unattractiveness of the market. Fundamentally, other nations will interpret Brexit as a blow to EU unity and therefore strain the relations between London and other EU capitals through complicating terms and rules of engagement (Duff 2016, p. 68). The United Kingdom will remain disadvantaged regarding accessing business deals in the large single market of EU. Mostly, the member states will prefer trading with each other locking UK from benefiting from the market (Ponzano 2016, p. 98) .On the other way, other nations in the block will miss the opportunity to benefit from United Kingdom’s contributions. For example, Poland is a huge beneficiary in the block receiving EU agricultural subsidies and structural cohesion programs.

Security issues

Britain leaving the European Union will also mean weakened security in the European Union. Britain was the most influential military power with enormous experience thereby leading the team to formulate security policies including sanctions; example, Britain's sanction stance on Russia (Modiano 2017, p. 316). Predictably, the Brexit will lead to stricter border rules and regulations especially along the Northern Ireland border to obstruct potential non-EU nationals from accessing Britain due to the stoppage of free-movement.

Research by political and economic commentators had predicted the Brexit would sooner than later trigger another Scottish break-away referendum which will most-definitely destabilize the UK constitutional settlement, with potential knock-on effects for Northern Ireland (Modiano 2017, p. 313). Ultimately, the post-Brexit deals and agreement will be marred with animosity and hard stance from the EU members sates because of the negative attitude held on Britain's move.

Damage to Trade Ties

Britain's trade and economic ties with the rest of the players in the international market would be a subject of huge uncertainties. EU's current functional preferential agreements with other countries around the continent would automatically cease to be implemented to the UK, and it would be a long and complicated process of relations building to achieve the EU level of relations (Jackson " Shepotylo 2017, p. 124). Most devastating is the US's intention to sideline the UK regarding trade deals which obviously indicating the economic turmoil the country was braced to face. As for the EU's continuing negotiations for lucrative trade deals—example; with the United States of America, India, and Japan—the UK would not gain from a quicker inside track on these bilaterally (Duff 2016, p. 68). The US President Barack Obama and Democratic presidential hopeful Hillary Clinton have made it clear that the UK would be sent to the "back of the queue" for trade deals with the United States, an indication of the potential damage to the "special relationship" between the UK and the United States.

Also, by removing a significant power from the EU, Brexit would enhance the already formed influence of Germany in the Union. Consequently, it could increase tensions in nations suspicious of Berlin—including France. Germany and its close trading partners in the EU would try to reorganize the block together again with revamped integration programs to counter the reputational damage of UK secession.


The United Kingdom's departure from the EU economic block was described as a hard Brexit because of the different attitude the nation took to potential problems either affecting it or other members of the block. Britain decided to exit EU because of several reasons majorly premised on the cost it was incurring as a partner in the trading and economic block. The woes included the increase in refugee crisis, immigrant influx and unfavorable terms of engagement. Britain exit from EU was envisioned to cause challenges for the country and other member states of EU. The foreseeable hurdles included economic recession, boarders tension, political situations like Scotland's will to break from Britain; conflicts and mistrust among the nations in Europe. The research has also established a foreseeable border tension between EU nations because of Brexit and its abolishment to the free movement of human labor. Therefore, EU countries and Britain will be much stricter to enforce the agreement thereby affecting boarder operations.


Duff, A., 2016. Borderless Debate: After Brexit, What Will Happen? Article 50: How to Leave the European Union. The Federalist Debate, Vol. 29, no. 3. Pp. 67-89

Ifelebuegu, A., Aidelojie, K. and Acquah-Andoh, E., 2017. Brexit and Article 50 of the Treaty of the European Union: Implications for UK Energy Policy and Security. Energies, Vol. 10, no.12, p.2143-2150.

Jackson, K. and Shepotylo, O., 2017. Post-Brexit Trade Survival: Looking Beyond the European Union. SSRN Electronic Journal, pp. 123-136

Majone, G., 2017. The European Union Post-Brexit: Static or Dynamic Adaptation?. European Law Journal, Vol. 23, no. 1, pp.9-27.

Modiano, M., 2017. English in a post-Brexit European Union. World Englishes, Vol. 36, no. 3, pp.313-327.

Ponzano, P., 2016. Borderless Debate: After Brexit, What Will Happen? After Brexit, What Should the European Union Do?. The Federalist Debate, Vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 98-104

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