The book ‘A history of medicine'

Dr. Jenny Sutcliffe and Nancy Duin wrote the book "A history of medicine." Barnes and Noble Incorporation, an American company, released the book there. In the medical review text "A history of medicine," the development of medicine is explained from prehistoric times to predictions for the year 2020.

The history of medicine begins with a struggle for life and for the knowledge of a world that, to its early human inhabitants, seemed to function at the whim of powerful forces. So, for millennia, humanity practiced primitive preventive medication - for this changed into all it can do - by means of appeasing the gods through ritual and sacrifice. steadily, a body of understanding constructed up, based on chance observation and trial and error. To those who believed that disease becomes because of evil spirits, as it now not logical to drill the cranium of a person laid low with a blinding headache, so as to release them? Unconcerned that this might additionally relieve intra-cranial strain, they have been in reality content the procedure sometimes labored. And gradually, in measured steps over thousands of years, the frame of medical tell action received more flesh, as civilization gathered tempo. First, the ancient.

Egyptians mixed magic spells with psychotherapy, whilst using animal fats and dung as their pills of choice; then Hammurabi of Babylon codified medical exercise, primitive and brutal though it becomes; next, Judaic regulation laid down dietary and hygienic prescriptions. however, the first, tentative attempts to deal with medication as a science evolved at more or much less the same time in Greece, India, and China. medical doctors - for we may also now name them so were frequently wrong, but their method to the frame and ailment changed into based totally on good judgment, each in their very own way of life.

It became a golden age, quickly to be torn apart via the fall of Rome, through barbarian hordes, and by means of the destruction of the super storehouse of historical learning in Alexandria: in quick, the darkish a while of drugs. as the shadow of superstition fell as soon as more in Europe, the beam of knowledge became kept alight inside the Muslim international of the center East. lengthy-forgotten truths returned, embellished, to Europe because the Moors occupied Spain and the Crusaders fought for the Holy Land. however, this re-awakening become cruelly shattered as the medieval world changed into torn aside via the Black dying.

Chapter one: The earliest medicine.

The primary reason as to why Egypt desires Greece is exceptional introduced to light by means of analyzing the interdependence among the 2 countries regarding inputs of manufacturing in clinical industries including scientific equipment and raw substances. it's miles brilliant to discover the variety of ways wherein the Egyptian economy has depended on Greece. Egypt has Greece as a financial blessing. "a center-income country with a hundred and twenty million young humans, an unquenchable thirst for Egyptian client medical products, and tens of millions of workers have been keen to produce for its clinical corporations." The large want for both specialized and non-specialized medical tools inside the esteemed medical industries of the Egypt has been satisfied by younger women and men who cross the border every week seeking out better employment possibilities. The Greek could be determined in most of the foremost scientific industries in Egypt.

Sutcliff's arguments approximately the development of drugs in the e-book have initiated a debate on whether the immigration of has made the salaries of the lowest paid medics to lessen significantly. "The then leaders blamed traditional medics and immigration for miserable Egyptian wages. however they might have been incorrect: The Greek medical manufacturing is not a replacement but a supplement to Egyptian clinical production-this is why factory output in Egypt is at an all-time high, and greater than 12 million people had been employed in production." medical gear is an important part of production in any production firm and its most effective fair that the then lords balanced among handing over their guarantees and being concerned for the scientific industries that keep the Egyptian financial system in the vicinity. Immigration laws may want to thoroughly remedy the issues surrounding unlawful immigration and also and make sure that the range of insecurity cases caused by immigrants has significantly decreased. The enforcement of the existing legal guidelines has been very poor with corrupt drug and weapon cartels crossing borders and finding their way into Egypt posing insecurity issues.

It was a struggle for a human to survive after evolving and they proved adaptive with the ability to raise over 80 percent of their kids, unlike the animals. Organisms responsible for chronic diseases were continually in their body whose effects became relatively mild.

Chapter two: The Renaissance and the enlightenment.

Technological improvement caused the improvement of living standards of the humans because the international was given better means to handle clinical obligations that could be so difficult to undergo, for the duration of the historic instances. All through, the world may want to enjoy numerous technical issues, which because of their nature, couldn't be solved, because the vital gadget and information had no longer been evolved. There had been also inefficiencies in managing responsibilities, as an example, the alternative of completely damaged frame components together with the muscle tissues. In a few parts of the arena, human beings ought to stroll on foot for lengthy distances, and in this situation, some of the sufferers ought to succumb on the manner. Medical technology of these times couldn't devise right treatment structures for the sufferers for instance during the accidents, mainly for those areas that had been nevertheless technically at the back of. This deficiency changed into not simplest on the scientific attendance component but also at the layout and production of the clinical-surgical device.

inside the then advanced countries along with Canada, clinical sutures have been already constructed for durability, and this becomes gauged relying on the extent of technological advancement and the understanding that became to be had, within the subject. Medical designers should use the environmental situations of the region to decide the homes of the sutures to fabricate. In a few instances, disasters ought to occur, as an example, the disintegration of a few sealed tissues and wounds.

the construction of scientific sutures changed into a protracted process, and traditional substances may be used. White organic ‘cement' become manufactured in its fashionable form, without the addition of other factors that might make it more potent and extra durable, and to impart exclusive mechanical and chemical residences in them. for the duration of construction, the sutures may want to take a prolonged period to treatment, for instance, sutures for bone tendons could take so long as 3 months before they can be cleared correctly to be used. at some point of the clinical packages, those sutures could collapse, collectively with the joined tissues, and this led to huge losses of lives and property. To solve this trouble, medical gadget factories redesigned their formulations for sutures to include hydrophobic substances. The final product was tested, and throughout operations, they might speedy disintegrate, though the extent of water absorption reduced. records series on operational performance was done inside the early 21st century, and it was found out that the wide variety of collapsed sutures reduced from 1012 to 615 within the first years of implementation of this program. The accelerated efficiency in surgical operations led to the switch of such era to the rest of the arena. Neighboring countries followed the usage of hybrid sutures, more often than not to reduce water perpetration into the repaired tissues. but, this did now not work correctly in other areas, due to the distinction in moisture residences, and the specific antibacterial properties of the human immune systems.

Sutures had been adversely stricken by the acidic blood, and large tissue systems, in particular in the Egyptian regions in which the acids had been strong enough erode the structures with stable knitted foundations. all through the primary phase of implementation of this program, simplest 4 of the ten sutures survived the wash-away by frame acids. therefore, there was a want to plan every other better fabric, or a new design that could maintain the environmental situations of the tropical areas. Tropical climates have precise traits, and hence need unique coping with of the sutures. It calls for sutures designed in particular to address the kind of weather modifications, which in maximum instances, have been quite unpredictable. The traits have been, very lengthy rains that come all of sudden, sturdy winds, excessive sunlight hours temperatures and coffee middle of the night temperatures, mild air pressure, which is dependent upon the velocity of winds, and usually, the location studies precipitation almost for the duration of the year.

Chapter 3: The nineteenth century.

Nursing standards also required that the medical firms ensured information availability. That is, the information necessary for the monitoring of the operations of the medical processes identified. The information included the medical process inputs, planning activities, preparatory activities, and result-producing, routing, and process activities. The information provided might be related to current and past performance, throughput, and downtime and response time. The information might also be connected to operating conditions, verification activities, and diagnostic activities. The information included plans, specifications, records, standards, and any information relevant to the monitoring of the operations. Nurses could be discrete enough, with a combination of honesty, to ensure that any private information concerning a patient and a medical process was not leaked out unnecessarily, to the outside world, unless authorized by a relevant medical body.

One of the internal factors that significantly affected the operations in a hospital is the knowledge that the nurses and other medics had, concerning the technology used, how to disburse information to other medical firms, how to handle different health problems and the available medical opportunities.

Time allocations to the various academic and professional favored every sector of the economy, to ensure that there were efficient operations of all medical procedures. The provision of quality services meant there must be a higher cost involved, in the purchase of the equipment and paying qualified workforce. The medical firm was therefore likely to make profits and at the same time, provide high-quality services at a lower cost, hence delivering social justice to its patients - in this case, there is a complete delivery of social justice and professional efficiency at the same time.

Time was also be allocated for thorough practical work, to ensure that every medical aspect read from the books was directly converted into practice and made entirely understandable. The amount of time allocated for the practical work was essential to determine the level of experience one had with the use of the medical machine and other equipment.

Chapter 4: Medicine before World War II

By the end of the 19th century, the emphasis on medicine in Europe and America was beginning to shift. Not did research cone cent rate on the infectious diseases that had once spread through continents. Instead, scientists have been more concerned with continual degenerative issues. There were several motives for this. First, many of the epidemic is sicknesses, which includes cholera and all pox, were understood, if not yet completely controlled, the e influenza pandemic of 1918-19 become to say 20 million lives by means of vaccination, new treatments, and public fitness measures. 2nd, the improved availability of scientific care, together with the developing belief that infection belonged in the hospital in place of the house, meant that more signs and symptoms that have been no longer immediately lifestyles-threatening was investigated.

Advances in general scientific knowledge, and in the technology available, also helped the research of ailment: the workings of the endocrine machine have been unraveled, for example, and insulin located; radiation turned into harnessed, and X-rays used for diagnosis; electron microscopes, ECGs, and EEGs, allowed the body to be probed in detail as never earlier than. But the advances in medication and technology were paralleled by excellent strides within the technology of war, as the notable powers of the arena girded themselves for conflict. In a terrible irony that seems to sum up the age, Alfred Nobel left the fortune he had made with the aid of inventing a manageable shape of dynamite to set up an annual collection of prizes that might inspire medical and clinical studies. The carnage caused by explosives at some point in the World War 2 horrors.

IN 1900, patients under a health practitioner’s car had best a 50 percent hazard of being better off than in the event that they and their sicknesses were left by myself.

Infectious diseases had been the terrific killers: within the United States, pneumonia, tuberculosis, gastrointestinal infections and diphtheria had been accountable for more than a 3rd of all deaths. However, inside the medical doctor’s little black bag were only a handful of treatments that acted mainly towards contamination: quinine for malaria, mercury for syphilis (see p. 100), ipecac for amoebic dysentery and the diphtheria and tetanus antitoxins that w ere nevertheless not universally generic. There had been development, however, especially in such regions as the country of Massachusetts. H ere, vaccination had nearly removed smallpox, some public health measures had been adopted, cholera has been without a doubt wiped out and typhoid fever became in decline. however, in different elements of the user, and in other international locations, public health changed into hampered via an absence of expertise of ways infections spread and by means of a dearth of critical statistics.


By the flip of the century, it was not possible for character docs to know the whole lot about the body. As an end result, many started to specialize in positive components or structures of the frame or in certain diseases. It has become quite desirable for doctors to confess openly that unique illnesses have been out of doors their variety, and for them to refer patients to different doctors with a unique understanding. by 1910, sweeping and vast include visits by public vaccinators measures to eradicate infectious to locations of work, along with this diseases had long gone to date as to printing works A BO V E. In Britain, the brand new ‘consultants’ banded collectively in centrally located organization practices. The most famous grouping became in and around Harley Avenue, a fashionable housing improvement in primary London. From the 36 medical doctors who had taken premises there with the aid of 1873, the clinical populace exploded till, by means of the give up of the century, their were 157 and the place had received the nickname ‘The valley of the shadow of death’. One of the first to position up his shingle became D r Arthur Conan Doyle, creator of the Sherlock Holmes memories. This sample of scientific specialization proved so popular inside the USA that, through 1890, there were few medical doctors in widespread exercise. American sufferers may want to pick out their own doctors for precise hassle s (in preference to being referred to).

Chapter 6: Medicine since world war II-Perinatal advances.

Optimization was the fundamental principle behind the design and manufacture of an efficient medical system, and this was achieved by the reduction of weight and increasing the strengths of the specific equipment. Optimization is also achieved by choosing proper pressures o surgery and setting proper separation distances between the stitches to ensure that the system was functioning under low-level material usage. The child-bearing capacity of the maternity ward incubation was taken into consideration for the synthesis of blue. Other parameters of use such as the compatibility with other systems, replaceability, and the compatibility with the body fluids are also crucial factors to consider during the design of the blue baby incubation system. The manufacture of medicine done by the use of modern electronic programmable machines that use signal logic to execute any of the processing tasks as instructed by the program fed into the control systems. Synthesized medicine replaced the crocodile feces. The machine software was designed, tested and verified for its fitness for use. Conventional systems of childbirth such as the use of crude herbs in the determination of a baby’s health parameters were no longer in use due to the development of more efficient machines for a health check.

The developments in medical formulations led to the invention of medicines that could control the birth rates in most countries. The design of the medicine made the human reproductive system to detect the changes in pressure and hormonal mechanisms, changes in the modes of organ operations and the alterations in the manner in which the body systems interact with each other. The of the birth control systems had the design chemical limits to ensure that at any instance of use, the body system does not break but instead adapt to the changes in hormonal functions. The disease control systems were also suggested for the use in different parts of the world for the economical use of the available resources. Proper immunization drugs were formulated to prevent the attack of pandemic diseases such as malaria.

Chapter 7: Medicine since World War II-Advances in science and technology.

The countries that had better financial reserves were technologically advanced as compared to the poorer ones. The technology was an asset of its own kind, and any advancement added to the countries’ ability to provide medical services. Most of the economically stable countries used advanced surgical technology in the provided medical services. For example, Israel, United States of America and China use modern radiology in the diagnosis of the health problems. The technologies replaced a greater percentage of human labor, hence the countries had more revenues to credit to the national treasury.

The countries adopted the use of equipment such as the X-ray machines, magnetic resonance machines and the automatic scanners for the diagnosis of cancer and heart infections. Most of the surgical work is done by robots and other automated machines, hence the expenditure on manual labor has greatly reduced. The medical advancement in the world may not be described as a one-time process since over time, the machines were constantly improved to come up with better ones. When a country has a reputation for the transformation of the medical systems from the analog to the digital ones that made it easier for the monitoring of the medical conditions of the patients. Moreover, the medical engineers developed hybrid body organs that could be used to replace the damaged natural ones. Moreover, the grafts were designed with light-weight materials to ensure compatibility with the body tissues.

Chapter 8: Medicine since World War II – Breakdowns and breakthroughs.

The authors cite the economic cycles for the advances that have been made in the medical field, especially against mental illness and other emerging viruses. Sutcliffe asserts that the governments of the different countries are stretching themselves to finance the provision of primary health products and services to the public. However, he blames the current dual market systems that compost of the different traders for the low-quality medical products that exist in the global market. However, Sutcliffe points out that the trade system shall be an excellent tool to boost international relationships and bring back the diversity of medical care skills. However, Sutcliffe explains that the binational trade system shall lead to the infiltration of inferior products to the global economy. He claims that developed has become the bank of the developing states and that most of the foreign savings of the countries are in developed countries. The authors also explain the emergence of cancer and HIV/AIDs, especially among women. The viruses and bacteria in the atmosphere have adverse effects on the economy of the countries since the nations use lots of finances in settling medical bills through the insurance schemes

Health and economic scenarios of viruses in the world.

The world health sector is adversely affected by the generation and distribution of the viruses and bacteria. A larger percentage of the population in the third world countries do not have the proper shield against the viruses and bacteria. The populations exposed to the carcinogenic viruses and bacteria, which lead to the contraction of fatal illnesses such as blood tumors. Workers in the lead and titanium mines are also facing problems in the control of the levels of disease prevalence. Bacteria concentration in the atmosphere is a current and potential environmental hazard to many countries in the world. Financial resources that could instead be used in the development projects are alternatively used for the medical auditing purposes.

Due to the variations in the sizes of the viruses and bacteria, tiny particles coagulate in the respiratory systems of humans, causing breathing problems. The viruses and bacteria between 1 and 45 nanometers are considered the most dangerous in the paralyzing of the human respiratory system. The viruses and bacteria directly affect the human respiratory system when they accumulate in large onto the surfaces that are responsible for the air exchange.

The development of vaccines.

A study done by Sutcliffe revealed that the use of biomedicine was prevalent among the poor population- the medicines used were planted extracts, due to people’s inability to get access to the western forms of treatment. The biomedical research team from the cited the same observations regarding the use of biomedicine and obtained almost similar results from their lab tests. The team selected the animal extracts for the development of vaccines. The identified gram-negative bacteria had a higher activity against other gram-negative bacteria when they were exposed to a lab test. However, the researchers did not point out the exact reason behind this finding, and no existing documentation has been published to explain the reason behind the high reactivity of viruses.

In another research work done by Sutcliffe, the bacteria were subjected to an experiment where it had to swim in search of food. The aim of the experiment was to determine the exact cause of the movement of the bacteria, and the chemical/substance to which it is most reactive. It was observed that viruses swim 1.25 times faster than any other bacteria in the same class. It was also observed that during its movement, the bacteria developed more flagella and expanded axially.

Medical specialists did extensive research on the behavior of the gram-negative bacteria in a liquid medium with chemical components. Severe chemo nastic response was observed in viruses-they developed biofilms on the surface of the liquid. The biofilm is suggested to be a nucleus formed by coagulated bacteria and is formed in response to signals of environmental variations. It is also suggested in the book that this may be a way to be distinct to their counterparts who are planktonic. The lab tests were used to study the behavior of different viruses for the development of appropriate vaccines. One of the major diseases of concern was poliomyelitis, which is observed to be prevalent both in the ancient times to the current world.

Chapter 9: Nine Ancient and Modern Approaches.

One of the paradoxes of modern medicine is that much of what can be done to cure disease s, rather than ameliorate their symptoms, only applies to acute conditions, not to chronic ones. As a result, large numbers of the general public have turned to other therapies: those of alternative, or complementary, medicine: some of them ancient, some of the more recent in inspiration and development — hoping that these will provide the cure that conventional medicine currently cannot promise with conviction. And techniques such as diverse as acupuncture, shiatsu, meditation, osteopathy, chiropractic, herbalism, and biofeedback have become popular throughout the Western world (some of them have always been routine in Asia). As conventional medicine has evaluated the techniques, some have become generally accepted — and taken into the fold of medicine under the name of ‘complementary’ techniques — while others are still considered to be extremely dubious. Parallel to this movement, there has been a general shift in medical perceptions towards the idea that preventive medicine is the most effective medicine of all. So many diseases, the argument goes, are avoidable, if people receive adequate health education and sufficient resources are available to fund public health programs. To date, the results of programs to deliver these have been both encouraging and frustrating: diseases such as smallpox can be eradicated; millions of lives can be saved if people can be persuaded not to smoke, and to take responsibility for their personal health. But the limiting factors are, as always, money and the wall to make changes.

In 1948, the United Nations set up the World Health Organization (WHO ), based in Geneva, with one sole purpose: “the attainment by all peoples of the highest viable level of fitness”. To gain this, it perform s a wide variety of capabilities: sporting out studies, maintaining records of notable sicknesses, standardizing global medical nomenclature, supplying aid in emergencies and to prevent accidents (in 1963, it gave Saudi Arabia ice factories to deal with heat stroke all through the once a year pilgrimage to Mecca), enhancing housing and residing situations, and ameliorating maternal and child fitness. Over time, W H O has finished ‘blitzes’ towards positive sicknesses. Its finest achievement became, without doubt, the eradication of smallpox (see pp.212—three), and inside the Nineteen Fifties, with the Rockefeller Foundation and Unicef (the UN’s youngsters’ agency), it turned into additionally capable of lessening sharply the incidence of yaws in South-east Asia. However, there have been defeats, too. In 1965, in its first worldwide marketing campaign, an attempt was made to get rid of malaria, the use of DDT (see p.93). But, it proved impossible to spray each pool of water and mangrove swamp, and then the mosquitoes became proof against the insecticide. Meanwhile, the old control methods- drugs, mosquito nets and draining stagnant swimming pools — had vanished, and research programs and laboratories had closed. W chicken the resistant mosquitoes back, lots of human beings died. This catastrophe greatly affected the way W H O acted from then on. Research was again emphasized and, most importantly, heavy reliance turned into placed on establishing grassroots health networks, which should maintain any paintings carried out by WHO. Out of this got here, in April 1977, the selection to attempt collectively to obtain ‘fitness for all by way of the year 2000’, and the method chosen was primary fitness care.

In September 197 eight, an international conference, convened together via WHO and Unicef and meeting in Alma Ata, Kazakhstan, determined exactly what primary fitness care inclusive of:

• Health education.

• Good enough meals supplies and right nutrition.

• Secure water and simple sanitation.

• Maternal and child health care, consisting of own family planning.

• Prevention and control of local endemic illnesses.

• Immunization against the main infectious diseases.

• Treatment of common sicknesses and injuries.

• Provision of important tablets.

The ‘Alma Ata Declaration, signaled through 134 member countries, also emphasized the want for self-reliance and self-determination. On the same year, WHO installation a diarrhea ailment manage program me to com bat the illnesses that resulted every year inside the deaths of at the least 4 million kids,

Chapter 10: Into the future.

Since i left medical school, within the m identity-Nineteen Seventies, it seemed that most of the awesome medical mysteries were, if not solved, well at the manner to turning into so. It seemed improbable that major new diseases would or will be diagnosed- all that remained became a look for therapies and an inclination for sets of signs previously idea to be disparate to be sorted into unified, surely described and attributable syndromes. And yet, nearly two decades on, the world has modified in this kind of manner that it is not possible to be positive about the medical problems that will confront humanity within the future.

For me, certainly one of the biggest modifications over the ones twenty years has been the emergence of AIDS — but that might be because I paintings in West London, an area that has the highest incidence of AIDS in Britain. Critiques vary approximately how lengthy AIDS - or, at least, HIV - has been with us (see p. 206). But ought to another virus sweep thru the world to create comparable devastation, in the equal way because the series of plagues of the middle a long time? There are some reasons for believing that one could. New sicknesses appear to end result from new dwelling situations-each social and environmental. Viruses can mutate into different forms, carefully associated but with different outcomes (HIV appears to have executed so several instances), and mutations occur for a range of motives, including both chemical influences (possibly from pollution) and the bod y’s immunological responses. A few lengthy-dorm ant viruses can be added to life by way of modifications in social behavior, too as an example, the kuru virus of recent Guinea (see p.201), which become brought about through the adoption of ritualistic cannibalism.

A more extreme, but not completely stupid, theory to provide an explanation for the emergence of latest viruses inside the future might draw on nature’s own methods of populace manipulate. In some species - rats, for examination plea -overcrowding reasons

ladies to turn out to be infertile; very critical overcrowding leads to serious united states aggression, and, ultimately, cannibalism. Lemmings, too, may additionally have their own manner of controlling population increases: they ‘com m it suicide’ by using jumping off cliffs. However the common vole may offer a higher parallel for the human population explosion this is forecast over the next 30 years: those small rodents have three-year cycles of population explosions, after which a parasitic worm within the brain cuts vole numbers back to size.


Business chemical substances can also, probably, cause the mutation of viruses, but it is much more probable that they will motive an entire range of physical hassle s, both acute and chronic.

Changes that have taken place in the practice of medicine.

clinical practice and fitness policy are each changing hastily. while the adopting of changes isn't always new for physicians, the pace of exchange in requirements of care, marked by using advances and reversals, has elevated over the route of the past decade. A routine new topic in clinical practice has been an emphasis on tailoring remedy plans to individual patients. Physicians have needed to simultaneously absorb new procedures within the health care system added about with the aid of the fitness facts era for economic and medical health (HITECH) Act in 2009 and the low-cost Care Act (ACA) in 2010. The ability of physicians to hold requirements of care that concentrate on person sufferers may additionally conflict with adjustments resulting from new health guidelines that emphasize population fitness control. primary care physicians can be one of the few collective voi

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