Residential Segregation and Inequality in Educational Attainment

Is it true that segregation produces winners and losers? Residential segregation and educational attainment inequality
The purpose of this essay is for Quillian to investigate the association between residential segregation and high school and college completion. The differing educational outcomes among students reared in metropolitan regions with diverse degrees of segregation demonstrate the effects of residential segregation on the basis of social position and race.
How does the Author elaborate on the argument?
Three explanations are presented by the author, focusing on the mechanisms of contextual inequality, intergroup attitudes, and intragroup solidarity.Quillian explains that income segregation contributes to inequality and that the most direct effect of residential segregation is on inequalities in neighborhood income levels, the effects of residential segregation also ripple through social institutions with composition drawn on a local basis.

Ochoa: Framing the “Gap”

What is the main argument?

The author argues that there exists an achievement gap based on race or ethnicity. Ochoa holds that high school and college grades and rate have always been perceived as the scores on standardized tests that measure achievement. The author explains that No Child Left Behind Act 2001 affirms that test performance is used to assess the students, schools as well as teachers.

How does the Author advance the argument?

The author explains that the NCLB Act requires students from grade 3 to grade 8 to be annually tested in math and reading and the school that failed to meet the targeted competency score were severely sanctioned. Ochoa further explains that the policies put forward by the government are part of neoliberal agenda to control the curriculum and ultimately privatize public schools.

Ochoa: Welcome to High School

What is the main argument?

It is the second chapter of Ochoa’s article that argues that the SCHS’s tracking system sorts, divides, and treats students disparately thus fueling their separation as well as the feeling different and unequal. The author explains that by the time students begin Southern California High School (SCHS), many are aware of the racialized and classed reputations that mark the middle schools feeding into the high school and the students who will soon be their schoolmates

How does the Author advance the argument?

Ochoa explains that While the Asian American and middle class and upper class are concentrated in La Montaña Middle School and in the high school’s International Baccalaureate (IB), honors (H), and advanced placement courses the Latinos and working- class students predominate in Maple Grove Middle School and in non-honors courses that are designated college preparatory (CP). The students in La Montaña and in SCHS’s top classes experience higher expectations and greater educational opportunities, while a binary, racialized, classed, and hierarchical construction of students is perpetuated.

Ochoa: “Parents Spend Half a Million on Tutoring”

What is the main argument?

This is chapter four of Ochoa’s article that focuses on the relationship between socioeconomic and education. The author challenges the argument that wealthy families produce smarter kids in school while low income families produce average students because of lack of resources.

How does the author expand the argument?

The author argues that inequalities in the education system are aggravated by the increasing growth of the tutoring industry that reverberates every family and schools. Ochoa explains that within the United States, the intensification of standardized tests and businesses that seize on the fears of families and students determined to gain admittance into desired colleges and universities have made tutoring a lucrative industry.

Buchmann: Gender Inequalities in Education

The authors explore the changes of gender inequalities in education. They argue that gender inequalities have impact on educational performances as well as achievements from early childhood to young adulthood. They explain that literature shows that there are performance differences between girls and boys.

How Does the authors extend their argument?

The authors use secondary data to analyze the relationship between the gender inequalities and educational performances. They use Maccoby & Jacklin's (1974) book which show the difference between the test scores based on gender. The authors explain that results from various national and international large-scale assessments indicate that boys have higher test scores in mathematics and girls have higher test scores in reading.

Works Cited

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