Project Management and Human Factors

Comparing the Present to the Past

Organizational practices have changed. Organizational structures have changed over the last few decades from autocratic to team-based. As a result, human elements are taken into account by organizational methods in the modern world. Priority is given to the dynamics of the team rather than the work plans and processes. According to Wong (2007), the human aspect is what makes projects successful. The likelihood of the project failing increases when human aspects are not encouraged and recognized. Therefore, it is crucial that John consider human factors as he manages the organization's adoption of the new software. One key element of a project that is essential to note is teamwork. The project cannot be accomplished without the team coming together to handle the tasks required for success. As for the organization, all of its members have to come together to support the implementation of the software. This is more so because the implementation of the project influences almost all the departments of the organization. The project's success will thus depend heavily on the support of the members of the organization. During phases such as testing, the project manager would use of opinion of the members of the organization and customize the software to their preference. Such action can reduce the potential for resistance to change.

The Importance of Addressing Human Needs

According to Ciccotti (2014), people are creatures of emotion, and it is important to address their needs to guarantee a smooth running of project activities. According to the author, the human factor in project management is founded on the psychology of human needs as well as emotional intelligence. Addressing the needs of the project team members can thus play an instrumental role towards the success of the project. As noted by Ciccotti (2014), human needs influence behavior. In addition, people prioritize their needs based on beliefs and experiences. In these regards, therefore, the human needs identified by Maslow's Needs Theory can help understand some of the human factors that can determine the failure or success of a project. Hertzberg's Dual Factors can also be used by the manager to ensure achievement of project goals is guaranteed (Wong, 2007).

The Three Spaces and Motivation

Wong (2007) identifies three spaces; organizational, workplace, and personal that employees operate in. The author also notes that behaviors of employees are motivated from these three spaces. Therefore, for the success of the project, the manager has to find exactly how motivation can be encouraged from all the three fronts. Following Maslow's Needs Theory, the project manager can focus on addressing the needs of the employees right from the bottom of the pyramid in physiological needs up to the top in needs for self-actualization. In regards to Herzberg's Dual factors, the project manager can ensure that members are guaranteed advancement, recognition, personal achievement, responsibilities, and work interest. Therefore, these theories of motivation can be used by the manager to impact positive influence on all the three spaces mentioned above.

The Impact of Teamwork and Human Factors

The project success depends to a great extent on the effectiveness of the teamwork. For an effective teamwork to be achieved, it is important for the project manager to take into consideration human factors. Such consideration goes a long way in addressing the needs of the project members that influence their behaviors. Therefore, theories of motivation, as determined in this paper can help the project managers address the needs of members in order to impact positive performance.


Ciccotti, K. (2014). The human factor in project management. Phoenix, AZ.: Project Management Institute.

Wong, Z. (2007). Human factors in project management: Concepts, tools, and techniques for inspiring teamwork and motivation. San Fransisco: Jossey-Bass.

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