Political Radicalization Issues

The social, economic, and political aspects of the nation are shaped by politics. Several national values and principles can be changed through upheaval as a result of political radicalization. Several revolutions occurred under the rule of Lenin and Stalin, raising living conditions. Political radicalization has some beneficial benefits, but it also has some drawbacks. According to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republicans (USSR), the revolution increased the gross national product (GNP) in the Soviet Union and the western nations as a whole, especially in the 20th century. An increase in countries GNP signifies the rise in per capita income, thus, increase in living standards. In addition, the article evaluates the living standards in the Soviet Union by examining previous data, which has not been exploited. Considerably, several measures of the welfare, in adults, infants, adult mortality, and children are taken into consideration. Significantly, longevity, nutrition, and health status are evaluated since they determine the standards of living. In addition, the article reassesses the income and wages to give the reader an insight of actual living standards in the Soviet Union in the 20th century.

Over the decades now, the growth of economy in the Soviet Union has been under intense evaluation by both western Sovietologists and the CIA, due to the significance of the issue in the US security matters but also because of the greater effort needed to contrast the economic statistics from the Soviet Union and the measures from the US to rectify the deficiencies in the information printed by Tsu, a statistical organization established in Soviet. Before evaluating the data estimates of the growth of the national income in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), it is important to highlight some of the demerits of the information about the Soviet economy. The primary issues in assessing the Soviet economy are the quality of available information (Rosefielde 2014, p.472). Considerably, these problems are grouped into three core tiers: differences in accounting practices between Western and Soviet national income, specific data publication, and misreporting of the incentives.

Regarding the misreporting of the incentives, the task of overall units of the economy, from the floor of the factory to the ministry headquarters, was assessed based on the satisfaction of the strategic goals established yearly at all tiers. Clearly, the system is pervaded by the incentives to over-reporting, thus raising questions about the credibility of the magnitudes of the economic reports (Rosefielde 2014, p.472). Similarly, the accounting approaches to the national income had the same problem when accounting for the developed economies and the USSR. The significant elements of the national income such as interest on capital and services were exempted when accounting for the Soviet Union. Additionally, the assessment of the Soviet growth by researchers was further complicated by the absence of market prices. Particularly, when comparing the prices in developed countries and the Soviet Union. Moreover, specific printing was an issue that affected the Soviet economic information. Actually, the data were embarrassing as they were manipulated to fit into the reasons of propaganda.

Stalin Industrialization Policies and it is Effects on Workers

The end of 20th and at the beginning of 30th century was what would be termed as the time in Soviet history when evolution took place. It was at this time when Stalin consolidated his grasp on his rule with freedom, introducing his “rebellion upward down” on the Soviet citizens. He vigorously revolutionized the philosophy of the period where a new Russian patriotism was born facing out Bolshevik belief that the household was a conventional set-up and paving way for comedians, actors, singers, and authors to hold on to communist practicality (Allen 2013, p.50)

These societal deviations were in a way minimal alterations likened to the deviations that were there before his business-related rules as portrayed in the daily way of living of the Russian citizens. Using the ruthless procedure of mobilization he demolished the independence of Russian farmer had continued to enjoy since the rebellion and he pioneered an industrial development initiative that has had some remarkable likes (Komlos 2015, p.800). The social expense of these two undertakings was very huge. At this time, the development of industries of the Soviet Union transformed into a dictatorial.

The development of industries was the core element of Stalin’s rebellion. Each and every ruler of the Bolshevik rebellion knew the outcome in initiating a socialist coup in Russia. Russia was not implication adequately financed to be a communist and eventually a socialist in the change from the ancient Russia to a purely socialist country it would involve industrial development in large dimensions.

In Marxist concept, a pure proletariat class can only be evolved only by the development of current industries (Steckel 2012, p.130). Steckel (2012, p.130) asserts that the essence of the development of industries was a real issue of defending oneself. Marxist portrayed the necessity for the development of industries as equal as a fight for a life. The question being “If one needs our communist native land to be trodden and end up in a state of no freedom?” was questioned in his popular February 1931 publication. He realized that working from a central point as the way to develop industries venture an achievement. “At this age, bad procedures should be done away with e.g. the once that interfere with what we do” (Allen 2013, p.52).

At the beginning of the first 5-year layout in 1929, Stalin introduced exceptionally huge output digits for industries to kick start. Rosefielde (2014, p.472) affirms the impracticable notion of these achievements can be observed by the way the numerous achievement sectional organized opt for factories 1932 were not arrived at up to 1960 (Rosefielde 2014, p.473). Actuality country arrangement was out in the window. Rosefielde (2014, p.472), “arrangement’’ was turned into rebelling aimed digits which had slightly more was reduced to naming figures which had slightly more than publicity meaning.

The Workers’ Rights of the Population

The stability of the economy depends on the string governance of the nation (Davies 2014, p.89). Therefore, to achieve greater economy, Stalin suggested industrialization and that the peasants were to accept the idea for it to materialize. Particularly, he emphasized on economic norms of war communism. In contrast, he argued that New Economic Policy (NEP) by Lenin diluted socialism but he was fearful of losing his influence on the peasants who were the beneficiary of the program. Stalin aimed at uniting the working class. The established the 5-year strategy and the collective drive drastically reversed the Lenin’s NEP model.

The plan led to the establishment of more schools to offer children’s with basic education and hence the education was compulsory to all children regardless of the gender (Davies 2014, p.88). The illiteracy level reduced from 50 percent in 1924 to 20 percent in 1939, thus increasing adult literacy (Davies 2014, p.89). The education emphasized practical skills by establishing more engineering and mechanical training centers. Arguably, Stalin opined that suitable education is the recipe for innovative concepts and methods and a medium for industrialization in Russia.

To promote and enhance education, there was the need for improving transport system in the region in order to export and import necessary goods out of the nation (Barbara 2016, p. 567). Additionally, infrastructure was enhanced such as building of the modern railway line such as Siberian – Turkestan railway line and the older lines upgraded to the modern level. Therefore, it became necessary to build networks of string surface roads and the systems of the canal to connect the rivers for practicing navigation. Previously, the insufficient infrastructure contributed to the delays in the delivering products and foods to their destination. The delays necessitated the building of the efficient and effective trains to reduce losses due to pilferages and spoilage of perishable goods.

A new agricultural system was introduced, bringing together numerous small farms into collective and state agriculture. Wealthy and peasant farmers who were against the selling of additional goods were strictly taxed (Mark 2014, p 230). Therefore, wealthy farmers were annoyed by the move hence intentionally killing their domesticated animals and destroying their products. Consequently, Stalin punished them by displacing them from their homes and deporting some of them to Siberia. The revenues were shared in three ways between the countries, employees and saving operation money to assist community development activities such building schools, hospitals, and centers of recreation.

Agriculture commenced progressing. In addition, the reforms led to socialized farming to the voluminous and were facilitated by the personnel of the capitalist who was owners of the large-scale farms during the reign of the Lenin and Tsar. However, its Stalin objectives were to nationalize all the lands, with the government assuming ownership. Therefore, this was one of the arenas in which Lenin questioned Lenin for promoting capitalism to join on the large scale and disregarding the interest of the community.

The decision of Stalin to commence rule of rapid industrialization came from his own opinion of the socialism. He believed that Russia wanted a visionary leader to deliver it from the darkness and lead to the wonders of the motorcars and metal tractors (Barbara 2016, p.580). The five-year strategy aimed at doubling production in the region. However, the lies were used to inspire employees and to promote the significance of teamwork for the better tomorrow. Moreover, more effort was directed to the development of industries, electrical plants, and steel. Engineering skills, scientists, and transportation systems from the west were required in Russia in order for it attain the same tier as other industrialized nations in the Europe (Allen 2013, p.50). Machinery and tools were desperately required. The funds were required to purchase this essential equipment since the capitalist nations were worried about extending credit to Russia’s Communist. According to Stalin belief, education was the main avenue for getting an industrialized labor force. Precisely, the improvements in systems of transport would necessitate easier movement of manufactured goods, agricultural practice, and raw materials.

Comparison between USA and Western Europe standard of living

The US was recognized worldwide for having higher living standards than Western Europe during the 20th century. In contrast, the per capita income in the US was equally distributed unlike in Western Europe. This comparison still stands for the differences between Europe and America today as indicated by the high frequency and more acrimony on both sides. However, this criticism is mutually familiar. To the commentators from America, they view Europe as being stagnant. Employers, workers, and regulations from Europe lack adaptability and flexibility as their counterparts from the US. In Europe, their prices of essential public services and social welfare were unsustainable. Thus, the citizens of Western Europe were underproductive. However, in this current world, the social model from Europe is considered to be a mirage which is doomed (Komlos 2015, p.800).

Abram (2014, p.296) asserted that life in the US was very hard and that Americans were in trouble since their way of life was unsustainable. Their pursuit of abundance, size, and wealth as the materials surrogated their happiness’s and it was aesthetically ecological and unpleasantly catastrophic. The US economy was built on sand and more precisely on other people’s money (Abram 2014, p.297). Considerably, the promise of better life is fading for many Americans. Today, the massive culture from the US is meretricious and squalid.

The people from Western Europe worked fewer hours than workers from the US hence signifying that employee’s life in the US was very hard unlike in Western Europe. For example, an American worker took 1,877 hrs compared to the worker in Europe who took 1,562 hrs to compete for the same tasks (Allen 2013, p.52). Similarly, an American worker was given less paid holidays unlike their counterparts from Europe. Although Americans were not being paid well, there were a great number of employment opportunities than Europe.

The lifespan of the Americans was shorter compared to the citizens of the west Europeans. The infant mortality rate in the US was equally higher than in the Europe. As a result, the US was ranked at 26 among the industrial countries in the infant mortality (Jerry 2015, p.255). In fact, this rate was twice more than that of Slovenia’s, Sweden, and Lithuania. Currently, the US government has allocated 15 percent of its budget to spend on the healthcare (Steckel 2012, p.104). By contrast, the Europe has devoted 8 percent of its gross domestic product to health.

In education, the US government invested more in improving their education standards than Western Europe. As a result, the United States has best universities in the world today. Contrary to this, Komlos in his study, he concluded that for a single US dollar spent on education the outcome is worse than the results from other industrial countries (2015, p.789). The children’s from America continuously underperform their peers from Europe when ranked in terms of numeracy and literacy.

In summary, the essay commenced by analyzing the statistics from the post-war resilience of the Soviet economic and political systems, with the faster economic recovery from the world war together with the political consolidation. Closely, the writer has established that the war led to dual factors, which explain the pace of economic recovery and the resilience of dictatorial reign of Stalin. In fact, the faster recovery of the Soviet economy resulted from prolonged resistance from a pattern of the poor leadership. The prolonged trajectory of the Soviet economy was dynamic and scarce. In 1945, the economic recovery was below this trajectory although there was a possibility of recovery from the backlog of the potential, which was unrealized, and this aided in explaining the rapid growth of the economic development in soviet from 1940 s via the 1960s. The recovery of the Soviet economy from post-war was a result of a well-planned framework of the command system that was centralized for resource mobilization. The increased effectiveness and efficiency of the post-war rule by Stalin benefited a lot the work arrangement of mobilizing resources. The living standards of citizens in the US were much higher than their counterparts from West Europe during this war. Consequently, the war raised Stalin’s data about the sharing of the loyalty in the Soviet society. Therefore, explaining how Stalin managed to defeat his enemies using less cost of mass terror and so reign as the Soviet dictator more effectively and efficiently than before the eruption of war.


Abram, B., 2014. The real national income of Soviet Russia since 1928. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Allen, C., 2013. Farm to Factory: a reinterpretation of the Soviet industrial revolution Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Barbara G., 2016. Purges and production: Soviet economic growth, 1928-1940. Journal of Economic History, 35(3), pp. 567-590.

Davies, R., 2011. The industrialization of Soviet Russia: the socialist offensive: the Collectivization of Soviet Agriculture, 1929-1930. Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan.

Davies G. (2014). Wheat croft, the Industrialization of Soviet Russia, vol. 5: The Years of Hunger: Soviet Agriculture, 1931-1933.pp.67 – 89.

Jerry F., 2015. Debates about the postwar world. In Susan J. Linz The Impact of World War II on the Soviet Union (p. 255). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers

Komlos, J., 2015. Shrinking in a growing economy? The mystery of physical stature during the industrial revolution. The Journal of Economic History, 58(3), pp.779 - 802.

Harrison, M., 2014. Soviet planning in Peace and War, 1938-1945. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Rosefielde, S., 2014. The riddle of post-war Russian economic growth: statistics lied and were misconstrued. Europe-Asia Studies, 55(3), pp.469-481.

Steckel, R., 2012. Industrialization and health in historical perspective. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

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