Martin Luther published a list of criticisms in 1517, alleging that the Catholic Church had been too concerned with power and wealth. The church was still too focused on worshiping icons rather than encouraging people to practice their faith in Christ. These grievances became known as the “95 theses,” and they served as the basis for the church split known as the protestant reformation (Fiero, 2015). These divisions had a profound impact on the arts, which in Europe were mostly concerned with religious issues. People put them up in churches and other public spaces so that the congregation could see them. Protestants believe in God’s intimacy, but they don’t need to go to mass (Luther, 2011). All the arts that emphasized the power of Catholic Church.
The citizens of Venice City created architecture from the delicate Gothic that so enthralled Ruskin to the stylish classicism of Palladio. This reflects the Venetian Lagoon waters which have been both enemy and savior to the city. Its protection has enabled the city to become a splendid Republic and a highly prosperous world power and also a leader in the worldwide trade. These waters challenge the city’s very existence. The Venetian architecture is idiosyncratic in style.
The Baroque sculpture had collections of figures which presumed new significance and incorporated a dynamic movement and energy of human forms. This reached outwards into the surrounding space and spiraled around an empty central vortex. This sculpture had multiple ideal viewing angles, water fountains and concealed lighting. For example, the soapstone sculptures of Old Testament prophets around the terrace are considered among his best work. The Aleijadinho in Brazil is also one of the pronounced names of baroque sculpture. The architecture fountains and sculpture of Bernini which was between the 1590s and 1680 provide highly charged features of the Baroque style. He was highly recognized for his work of sculpturing since he had adequate knowledge and skill in carving marble. He was also capable of generating figures that are both spiritual and physical. Bernini worked as an architect, painted, sculpted, staged spectacles, and wrote plays.
The baroque architecture
Baroque architecture originated from Islam culture and has played a crucial role in shaping architectural design all over the world. The style is characterized by the use of motifs like curviangular arches and squinches. A good example of an architectural design that was constructed using Baroque style is the Ulu Cami Hospital in Divrighi, Turkey. It was completed in 1229. Its ornamentation and décor resemble Baroque. The figure below is a depiction of the entrance to Ulu Cami Hospital. It shows a close view of the Baroque features (Gage 15).
Figure 5: Northern entrance of the Ulu Cami Hospital (13th century)
Source: Gage (2014).
Donatello was one of the pioneers of the renaissance and helped to change the way people looked at the world. He worked together with Ghiberti, Masaccio, and Brunelleschi who are also forerunners of Renaissance. Donatello sculpture depicts the art in Renaissance since it speaks directly to the current world. Its powerful nature reveals a lot to individuals on the art of Renaissance. The sculpture is a symbol of colorful and vivid world of Italian politics in the era of the Renaissance (Huizinga 244).
The titles Medici and Florence are intricately interrelated with each other. This began in the late 1300s to 1737 in which the family ruled, advised, were exiled in Florence. They later returned and ruled in unending phases. They ruled with a lot of authority in the city and assisted in creating one of the most vibrant artistic centers of the Renaissance and afar. The Italian Renaissance can be seen in the Sandro Botticelli which is one of the greatest painters in Italy. The magnificent Primavera and smart Birth of Venus which is both his works are amongst the best-known images from the Florentine Golden Age. He had difficulties with his art since the period was precarious and unstable full of religious discomfort and political tumult. These forces distracted his art hence had a slow progress. His painting was caught up when Florence moved from the luxurious age of the Medici to the religious severity of Savonarola (Huizinga 247-250).
The baroque style of art was instigated in the late sixteenth century and lasted up to around 1750s. Baroque is used in designating flair of music that was composed during an era that edges with that of Baroque art. The music shared aesthetic principles literary and visual arts of the era. The love of ornamentation is a clear indication of the shared element. The Baroque music is a modern development in the world. Some of this kind of music was filled with incessant discords and lacked melody. It continuously changed meter and keys and at the same time hastily ran over each compositional device. The ground bass was a technique utilized in Baroque music. This involves the use of a repeated bass line. Examples of such music forms created during this period include sinfonia, cantata, sonata, oratorio and concerto (Barolsky 202).
Philosophy and Literature
Philosophy played a vital role during the Middle Ages since it was the handmaiden of both Islamic and Christian philosophy. It was a subject to the authority of the clergy which tended to keep a tight tether on it. The form of philosophy during Renaissance was humanism. The human society and the humanity were the object philosophical inquiry independent of religious presuppositions and religion itself. The Roman and Greek literature were translated leading to the rise of stoicism, skepticism, and Epicureanism (Kirkbride 25). The literature was used in ancient period to analyze the political turmoil and religious asceticism. This is currently used in learning and criticizing the vices in the society.
Art plays a crucial role in expressing creative thinking of humanity. Evidence of ancient civilization can still be seen in various forms of art in the current world. There are innumerable reasons as to why art is important in the society. It plays a critical role in eliciting visceral reactions which cannot be expressed by words alone. Records of civilization can be depicted in pieces of art. The Renaissance, Reformation and the Age of Baroque encompass art, architectural drawings which were used in the ancient ages and used in the modern ages. This is because the sculptural works were powerful and depict the current situation in the world. The philosophy and literature works were the handmaidens of Islamic and Christian ideologies during the middle ages. The philosophical values are also used in the modern world. All these aspects guide the behavior in the society. Islamic art is considered to be the most vibrant and distinctive that has influenced the society irrespective of religious boundaries.
Adahl, Karin. Islamic art collections: an international survey. Routledge, 2013.
Barolsky, Paul. “History of Baroque Art.” A Handbook to the Reception of Ovid (2014): 202.
Bleher, Sahib Mustaqim, and Tariq Ramadan. “Islam and Life-Islamic Art Inspiring Western
Art, Artists Part 2.” JAMMO ISSN 2146-3328 9.33 (2015): 505-519.
Gage, Frances. Baroque Art and Architecture in Italy. Oxford University Press, 2014.
Huizinga, Johan. Men and ideas: History, the middle ages, the renaissance. Princeton
University Press, 2014.
Kirkbride, Robert. “Rhetoric and Architecture in the Renaissance.” The Oxford Handbook of
Rhetorical Studies. 2015.