Introduction to Sociology

A collection of values, traditions, and beliefs shared by a community of people is referred to as culture. The ideals and ideas that are anticipated in a given society are referred to as an ideal culture. Typical principles are absolute and do not allow for any compromise in terms of people’s actions. On the other hand, an authentic culture can be described as collecting values, traditions, and beliefs that exist in a given society. People tend to distort some of the ideal world’s cultural ideals to accept changes in their climate. Proper perception aids in separating the gaps between what is expected in the perfect world with the practical experience (Durkheim 2014). A good example in the US is the values towards marriage. Previously marriage was meant to be a lifetime experience for opposite sex partners. However, currently, the values of the marriage institution in the society have changed. We have increased the number of single, divorced parents and gay marriages. This is a realistic representation of real culture derived from the ideal culture.

Question two

Norms refer to the rules or behavioral presentation expected from members of a given society or culture. They vary depending on the cultural values of a given society. Sanctions can be defined as the punishments given to the individual members who break the social norms. Standards are important as they provide the guideline through which the people should live and relate to each other. Sanctions are essential in enforcing the agreed norms within a society. The punishments are meant to discourage people from breaking the rules. According to Durkheim members in the society are easily influenced by people around them. The social forces are responsible for defining the behavior of individuals. This provides the required relevance to norms, since establishing of standards will help set the behavior of different individuals within the society (Durkheim 2014).


Durkheim, Emile. The rules of sociological method: and selected texts on sociology and its method. Simon and Schuster, 2014.

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