Genetically Modified Organisms

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Genetically modified organisms are dwelling organisms whose genetic whose sequencing has been manipulated with through genetic engineering. GMOs have been changed to face up to adverse impacts. However, there is evidence that connects GMOs with a number health problems and environmental issues. An Enviropig is a trademark for a genetically modified line of Yorkshire pigs with the potential to digest plant phosphorus more efficient than unmodified pigs. They had been developed at the University of Guelph. It has benefits like reduced feed fee and reduced phosphorus pollution.
This information is from an article through the site www.redorbit.com. Though brief, I chose the article on account that it’s quite comprehensive, and encompasses on the reasons, process, and impact of the modification of the pigs. Enviropigs was developed by the introduction of a transgenic construct made up of the promoter segment of the murine parotid secretory protein gene and the E. coli phytase gene. This construct was synthesized into a fertilized embryo by pronuclear microinjection, and this embryo in addition to other nuclei was surgically implanted into the reproductive tract of an estrous synchronized sow. After gestation, the piglets go through inspection for the presence of the transgene and phytase enzyme activity in the saliva, and it was firmly transmitted. The primary purpose of Enviropig was to create genetically engineered pigs that could break down the phytase on its own. Estimated 50 to 70 percent of phosphorus in cereals is present in the indigestible compound called phytate. When this goes through pigs the manure, they give causes buildup of phosphorus in the soil. This phosphorus leaches into water bodies during rains causing increased algae growth. Algae reduce oxygen concentration within water causing the death of aquatic life and also toxins that make water unhealthy to drink. Enviropigs produce less phosphorus in the manure; there is less opportunity for pollution.

The Enviropigs have several pros, one is they are cost efficient in terms of feeding, they are environmentally friendly since they can digest phosphorus which pollutes water bodies this was after a research by Environment Canada concluded that the Enviropig does not cause harm to the Canadian environment or human health and multiple Enviropigs are healthier than conventionally raised pigs (Meidinger, Golovan, Phillips, Mathur & Forsberg, 2008). Anything that has advantages often has disadvantages too, and the cons include, long-term risks that haven’t been discovered yet since the majority of the population are uncomfortable with consuming GMO, the cost of keeping the Enviropig is likely to go up since in the USA, the Ontario pork farmers who don’t want the public to associate their pigs and farms with GMOs have withdrawn funding.

Bacteria play important roles in organism’s life. In human intestine, there are bacteria E. coli that helps in the breaking of lactase if born babies are administered with the bacteria Lactobacillus reuteri there are fewer chances of suffering from diarrhea. Biotechnology uses bacteria. Insulin is an antibiotic which is prescribed for the diabetic; it is possible to synthesize the insulin in the microorganisms like bacteria. Mutated forms of bacteria have been introduced into the soil as a way to make it more fertile.

Cathy Holtslander, a community organizer, says an alternative way to address the problem of phosphorus pollution would be to reduce the concentration of hog-confinement facilities and the numbers of animals in them. Another criticism is that GMO foods are not what the current population is ready for though the founders insist the population growth demands it. The GMOs are against ethical standards reducing living organisms to bits of information codessacred qualities rather genetic codes that can be arranged and rearranged at whim. Stripped of their integrity and sacred qualities

References

Meidinger, R., Golovan, S., Phillips, J., Mathur, P., & Forsberg, C. (2008). The Enviropig™: Reducing the environmental impact of animal agriculture through high health-status pigs that efficiently utilize dietary plant phosphorus. Journal Of Biotechnology, 136, S217. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiotec.2008.07.458

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