Ensuring physical security

Creating a physical protection system that reduces the likelihood of uncontrolled intruders in the protected area, movement inside the controlled area, and the commission of any acts intended to cause damage to property and material values as well as to personnel's lives and health is necessary to ensure physical security in the organization. The physical security system is a combination of techniques used to safeguard the organization's (facility's) personnel and material assets from potential threats, intentional or unintentional harm from offenders, criminals, terrorists, etc., and the targets of their protection. (Wulf and Jones, 2009). Organizational measures, technical and engineering protection systems, and physical protection tools and equipment are the three primary axes of physical protection. The present research deals with the discussion of the means of physical security in the organization and discusses the importance of physical protection.

Means of physical protection in Organizations

The use of means of physical protection significantly increases the efficiency of functioning of system of protection of the whole organization, and, taking into account the nature and location of some objects of the company and the tasks they perform, almost guarantees the achievement of the main goals and objectives of organizational security.

The major objectives of the physical security in organization are the following:

1) Elimination of emergency situations, which can lead to the loss of corporate resources (fire in the office and facility organization, accident energy, heat and water supply, led to a breakdown of the staff, etc.) (Wulf and Jones, 2009);

2) Mitigation of threats to life and health of personnel. Protection, operational duty officer, duty supervisors in the pharmacies and in the organization's office, to prevent theft or leakage of commodity-material values);

3) Integrated use of the forces of security and protection and engineering facilities in order to protect the property;

4) Obstruction of unlawful penetration into the territory of organization by the unauthorized persons, with the purpose of obtaining access to property, finances, official documents, information on electronic media (Wulf and Jones, 2009);

5) Limitation and delimitation of access for various categories of visitors to the territory, buildings and premises of the organization;

6) Identification and suppression of illegal actions of individuals and criminal groups, interaction with law enforcement agencies on legal issues and operational work.

When the basic security plan is being composed, it is necessary to consider the following basic elements: basic physical controls over the organization, organization of perimeter protection, creation of external and internal building security, access control and creation of protective systems, which would ensure stable and reliable protection from the illegal and unsanctioned intrusion on the territory of the organization (Wulf and Jones, 2009).

Basic physical controls

This part of the physical protection program is one of the most important, as it comprises the basis for the physical protection of the organization, defines areas, requiring maximum level of protection and creates the basic means of security.

Modern physical control systems are created on the basis of wide application of engineering technical and software means and include the following major components (subsystems): control system and control on access of personnel; alarm system; a closed circuit television system; the system of operational communications and reporting; support systems (lighting, power, security lighting, etc.) (Anderson, 2004). Usually, when creating a modern physical control system, as a rule, there is also a task to protect vital centers and systems from inadvertent, erroneous or incompetent personnel actions. Given the complexity of tasks, the creation of physical control system cannot be based on frequently used principle of "reasonable sufficiency" and requires an integrated scientific approach. This approach involves the two stages of the design of a physical control system of important objects: a) conceptual (system) design; b) detailed design. The main stages of the conceptual phase of the project are: analysis of the vulnerability of the object; development of principles of physical protection of the object; development of feasibility study for the establishment of physical protection system.

Perimeter protection

Perimeter protection as part of physical security of the organization can be defined as a separate part of protective system. The main purpose of perimeter protection is to detect any threats of penetration in the protected territory at an early stage. Moreover, perimeter protection is used for further prevention of unsanctioned penetration and taking appropriate actions in case of any potential threats. Perimeter protection provides represents the first line of protection. Due to some limitations, the system of perimeter protection should be used in conjunction with other security systems and alarm systems (CCTV, burglar alarm) (Anderson, 2004). Perimeter protection system is aimed at protecting not only objects and material values, located inside the organization, but the objects, situated in its territory. Today, there are many varieties of perimeter protection systems (Anderson, 2004). Each of these systems has its advantages and disadvantages, so it is very important to make the right decision for choosing the right type of perimeter protection for each object individually.

Any perimeter protection system must meet a certain set of criteria. The major ones include the following: early intruder detection, i.e. before entering the object; accurate following of the contours of the perimeter; hidden installation of the system sensors; independence of the system parameters from seasonal and weather conditions; immunity to external factors (noise, noise passing traffic, small animals and birds); resistance to electromagnetic interference (lightning, powerful sources of radiation) (Williams, 2010).

External building protection

External security is more than simple protection against possible and potential attacks, which can occur both, internally and externally. External security has essential principles, which should be followed in the course of the design of external building security systems. Some of the essential principles comprise confidentiality, truthfulness, consistency, and availability. In the system of external building security, diverse types of types of physical security may be included. In addition, essential principles can be used to develop policies and procedures, which are already adopted for protection of the organization. Among the means, used for external security of the organization, there is lighting and fences. The value of sufficient and adequate lighting as a prevention of possible crime cannot be overemphasized. Proper lighting, used as a means for external security is a cost-effective line of protection (Anderson, 2004). All sides and approaches to the organizational facility should be properly illuminated. As for the fences, they are the first means of protection, which should be set in any organization. Fencing, surrounding the territory of organization should be strong and well maintained. Fence lines should free of trash and debris.

One more important form of external protection that can be included into the design of external building security is natural surveillance, such as reducing the amount of dense, high vegetation in the landscaping with the aim not to provide the attackers with the opportunity to conceal themselves within fences (Anderson, 2004). In addition to fences, lightning and natural surveillance, external security of buildings comprise doors, gates, and other entrances, which should be well lit to provide close and precise observation of people, who are entering and exiting.

Internal building security

Internal building security or the inner layer of security of the organization is a significant aspect in the physical protection system. Internal security of organization is aimed at addressing intruders and adversaries, who are able to penetrate into the territory of organization, passing the perimeter protection and external protection means. Controls, which can be included in the internal building protection system, are windows, protective lighting, intrusion and illegal access detection systems, signs, barriers, locks, access control, and surveillance (Curtis & McBride, 2011). In other words, they comprise everything that can be used to protect organizational assets, located within the organization (Curtis & McBride, 2011).

The means for internal security and internal protection of organization are valued by the assets, which are to be protected. Simply speaking, the more valuable the assets are, the more complex the internal security system is. Prior to implementing an organization’s security plan, it is necessary to consider the means that will be used in the physical security program and address organizational perimeter security, external security, and access control (Curtis & McBride, 2011). During this process, organization does not often address internal security and put no security measures into place (Curtis & McBride, 2011). In order to ensure that an organization has a complete security plan, it is necessary to execute protective measures into internal security plan. Proper internal organizational security guarantees that organization is protected from the inside and its assets are properly secured.

Access Control and Recommendations

Access control is a significant function of any physical security plan. Access control is important for any business, as it ensures protection from illegal access and unauthorized use of organizational assets. Access control is a considerable part of the functions of detection and delay, which can be found in the physical protection systems in the organization. The object of access control is to provide permission for the authorized personnel to enter and exit the organizational buildings and premises, detect, foresee and prevent any unauthorized movements of valuable assets, identify and avert the movement of contraband, and provide information about any cases of unauthorized use of valuable and secret information.

Taking into account the increased value and popularity of technology, there are numerous devices that can improve security and assist the personnel in distributing responsibilities and protecting valuable assets of the organization. The major recommendation that may be given in relation to access control is make emphasis on the use of technologies. Technology should be constantly maintained to run properly (Williams, 2010).

Estimation of physical security plan with the use of technologies for surveillance and detection of unauthorized access to valuable assets of organization (2016-2020 financial years)

Fiscal Year

Annual use of surveillance and unauthorized access detection

Monthly use of surveillance and unauthorized access detection

Weekly use of surveillance and unauthorized access detection

Daily Salary of security managers

Hourly salary of security managers

FY 2016






FY 2017






FY 2018






FY 2019






FY 2020







Today, the problem of physical security is extremely important, because of the emergence of new potential threats, such as terror attacks and unauthorized use of the valuable organizational assets. In order to protect organization from potential risks, effective physical security should be implemented to minimize the risk of threats to the organization. In this respect, the development of physical security should comprise several layers and multiple steps, which include external building security, internal security, access control systems, and proper perimeter security. In addition, physical security is impossible without the implementation of modern advanced technologies, which are able to enhance considerably the trustworthiness of modern security systems and diminish the risks of potential threats to physical security system of organization.


Anderson, R. (2004). Security Engineering. New York: Rutledge.

Curtis, G., & McBride, R. B. (2011). Proactive security administration. NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Wulf, w. and Jones, A. (2009). “Reflections on cyber security,” Science Magazine, vol. 326, pp. 943–944

Williams, G. (2010). Modern Security Systems. New York: Random House.

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