Emotional and social intelligence refers to a collection of skills that are related to self-control, self-awareness, and relationship management. It enables people to comprehend and control their own emotions, as well as the emotions of others, in any social interaction. The need for a study involving emotional and social intelligence emerged, in part, as a result of a need to understand the principles of personality analysis, multiple intelligence, neuroscience, and emotional psychology. It was discovered that people process data about the world and themselves through their emotional centers in the same way they process data about the environment and themselves (Babbie 58). In a classroom setup, a teacher and a student have a role to play in appreciating each other emotionally to enhance the learning process. In this case, teachers serve as leaders, and they have an obligation to master the various competencies to enable them access data available in emotional centers of students. Learning activity encompasses different psychological processes that must be considered. Teachers have to ensure that students apprehend the concepts they teach and to do this, they have to master their feelings by accessing emotional centers of the students.
Emotional and social intelligence enables teachers to understand students well. The apprehension gives teachers the insight on how to handle various students based on their feels and level of social intelligence. For instance, when a student makes mistakes, they resort to other solutions that are psychologically efficient compared to the standard punishments. Different students have different sentiments and varying levels of emotional stability. Therefore, they are likely to react differently to a similar situation. When teachers appreciate the fact that learners are not the same depending on some social and other issues that relate to them, they can personalize their treatment for the students. Learners are likely to be comfortable when treated according to their different feelings and human intellect.
Healthy classroom relations rely on the ability of both the learners and their teachers to interact well. Effective interaction can only be achieved if both the teachers and the students appreciate their emotions, understand other people’s feelings, manage their sentiments and relate in a way that respects the difference in emotions. Students develop social intelligence competencies from their ability to be aware of their feelings as well as patterns of behavior in a bid to facilitate management of destructive or negative emotions effectively. Furthermore, emotional intelligence competencies also enable learners to share in positive experiences and relationships with other people in a way that enhances not only learning but also life satisfaction. Life satisfaction is necessary for improving learning processes in classrooms and should be considered by teachers as a core factor in any learning process.
Emotional intelligence theory is attributed to Goleman, a psychologist who came up with the theory to facilitate learning processes. The theory is mainly concerned with the ability to understand as well as manage emotions. Goleman asserts that emotional intelligence is made up of domains; knowing one’s emotions, controlling feelings, self-motivation, recognizing and appreciating other people’s emotions and controlling relationships. This theory embraces and borrows from other branches of emotional, behavioral and communications theory. Goleman believes that developing our emotional intelligence in the 5 EQ constructs can make us more productive and fruitful (Kettley 128). It will also enable us to manage relationships and help other people to be successful too.
Emotional and social intelligence provides significant apprehension in a classroom. It allows teachers to understand the feelings of the learners and handle them concerning their emotions. For students, it enables them to have constructive interactions by knowing their feelings, understanding those of others. Both students and teachers can manage relationships hence creating a good classroom association.
The United States is one of the countries whose population consists of people of different races, cultures, ethnicities, and religions. Language, race, culture, age, and ethnicity have a direct effect on the growth of most children living in highly diverse societies such as the United States. According to Richardson (39), more varied environments boost the level of critical thinking of many students, challenge their assumptions, stimulate the level of their awareness, knowledge and important contact communication and connection. In schools, people from different cultural, racial and religious background come together with a common goal of getting educated. Considering that these factors affect learning to some extent, it is important to address issues related to diversity in religion, ethnicity, and race in classroom setups.
The first step towards ensuring that needs of all students are met is creating awareness of the learners’ rights. All students are entitled to equal opportunities even in a diverse school environment. However, some learners are deprived of some needs by being discriminated based on various aspects. I will educate all students and the entire school fraternity to create awareness of the fact that under no circumstance should any learner be denied their needs because they are from a different background, religion or race. I will encourage students to be firm when asking for their needs and report any cases where their demands are not honored on a discriminatory basis. Students must be aware of their rights and say when they are violated.
Understanding the challenges students encounter as a result of their diversity is another step towards ensuring learner’s needs are met. I will strive to apprehend my students take regarding diversity within the classroom. I will establish rapport and make them free to express themselves concerning any challenges that they face as a result of diversity. I will create a forum where the learners will be required to anonymously raise issues and concerns that are related to differences in race, religion or any other aspect. I will sample the concerns that are raised by the students and come up with a comprehensive report of all the matters that result from diversity.
Involving the students and other significant stakeholders in finding solutions to the problems is important. I will give the learners a chance to give suggestions that will be considered when making decisions of how to ensure that all their needs are met without discrimination. I will also include critical stakeholders like parents and the school management board to come up with an informed solution that will be sustainable.
Equal treatment is a school environment is necessary. However, sometimes dealing with it might not be easy. I will identify major areas where students’ demands are not met. I will develop a program that ensures that the identity of the students in such a field is not revealed. For instance, if teachers award marks based on race, I will change the naming system during exams so that the learners have codes that do not reveal their race, ethnic background or any factor that can be a basis for discrimination.
I will institute a hefty penalty or punishment for deprival of student needs. I will partner with organizations that are against any form of discrimination and the legal system to identify viable penalties for various forms of discriminations either from students or teachers and any other associates. This will ensure that no learner is deprived of their needs.
All learners must be given equal opportunities and treatment. All forms of discrimination must be abolished to make sure that all the needs of each student are met.
Appropriate professional relationships are important in any institution. In a learning environment, understanding and collaboration among teachers, board, students, student board, and parents are necessary for the attainment of organizational goals. Professional educators have a significant role to perform in maintaining a professional relationship with all the education stakeholders. They have responsibilities that they should perform to ensure a stable interaction with the local school administration and the school board, colleague teachers, parents and the students
Teachers’ responsibilities to the school administration
Professional educators should promote positive relationships and efficient interactions with the local school administrators and the school board. They should advocate for laws and other policies that the teachers support as promoting education and healthy interactions of students and their families. Teachers should work together with the local community administration and the school board to advance the interest of the learners without any personal rewards (Rourke 105-115). They should practice the highest level of accuracy, honesty, and disclosure of information that will lead to decisions that will improve student performance and general well-being.
Teachers’ responsibility to colleagues
Professional educators should promote effective professional relationships with workmates by
According to fellow professionals respect they require and maintaining civility shall difference arise.
Resolving any conflicts privately and respectfully according to the district policy
Sharing educational records objectively and efficiently as required by local policies and federal laws.
Collaboration with other professional educators in a way that supports achievement of academic goals and any other targets that promote the interest of the learners.
Supporting the personal and vocational growth of new teachers by mentoring activities and supporting active field experiences.
Preparation and supervision of educators who are assigned mentorship roles for new educators.
Ensuring that teachers are allocated positions in relations to their academic credentials, experience, and preparation.
Ensuring that there is no harassment at the workplace.
Teachers’ responsibilities towards students
The primary obligation of professional educators is to treat students with respect and dignity. They should promote health, safety and the well-being of the learners by establishing and maintaining effective verbal, emotional, physical and social boundaries. Teachers respect the rights and dignity of the students by
Being considerate of the gender, age, and culture of the students.
Being transparent when interacting with students in permissible settings.
Ensuring efficient and respectful communication with the students.
Considering their appearance and dressing so that it does not affect their interaction with the students.
Avoiding any romantic or sexual relationships with the learners.
Teachers demonstrate an ethic of care for the students by appreciating the learner’s academic, personal and social needs. They should also respect the dignity, worth, and uniqueness of each learner. Educators have an obligation of establishing and maintain an educational environment that improves the physical, intellectual, emotional and sexual safety of all students. Teachers have an obligation of maintaining student trust and their confidentiality when interacting with learners. Student-educator relationships must be developmentally appropriate, and they must be within acceptable limits. Teachers must respect the privacy of students, uphold the parent/guardian’s legal rights and protect the confidentiality of student information and records. Professional have more responsibilities towards maintaining positive relationships with the students because of numerous interactions.
Responsibility to the parents
Professional educators promote positive relationships with parents or guardians by
Communicating with them in a respectful and timely manner that represents the best interests of the students.
Being committed to equality, inclusion, equity and respecting diversity in members of the school society.
Considering any effects of accepting or giving gifts from parents/guardians
Keeping confidential any student information that is provided by the parent or guardian unless required by law.
Teachers are at the center of educational interactions. Therefore, they have an important role to play in maintaining positive professional relationships with all stakeholders of learning institutions.
Question 4- learning theories
It is important to understand how people acquire process, retain and recall knowledge. Learning theories are principles that explain how the learning process takes place. The conceptual frameworks can be used as techniques, instructional tools and strategies to promote learning. Theorists came up with three major learning theories; behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism.
This approach resulted from the experiment of B.F Skinner and the idea of operant conditioning. Proponents of this theory argue that knowledge exists independently. Learner is viewed as a blank slate that should be taught. According to these proponents, learning takes place through the association of stimuli and responses, hence causing behavior change (Bates 22).
Skinner describes learning as behavior change of acquisition of a new trait. Therefore, knowledge gaining process is measured by observable change in traits. According to this theory, learners acquire skills by reacting to a stimulus that is presented from the environment. The consequences of a reaction towards the presented stimuli reinforce a behavior that is desired. A behavioral pattern is repeated to achieve an automatic response.
This theory can be used in the classroom environment to motivate students. Teachers use this theory by awarding students who score high grades or for any excellent performance in school and punishing trouble makers. The rewards serve as an encouragement for the students to work hard to continue getting awards while punishment produces negative reinforcement. However, this theory does not prepare learners for creative and critical thinking.
Jean Piaget is the major proponent of this theory. He argues that behavior results from cognitive processing of information. Biologically, people process the information they receive rather than just giving a response. Behaviors change interpreted to mean change in the learner’s way of thinking (Learning theories 37-52).
Piaget believes that learning takes place through internal processing of information. This theory focuses more on mental causes of behavior change than external forces.
In a classroom setting, teachers help the students to think critically and understand ideas. Students do not just respond to stimuli automatically. They process the information, understand they give a reaction. Learners use concepts of this theory during discussions, classifying information and solving problems. They can internalize the information, apprehend it and think of the best response. The class environment has many aspects that cannot be conditioned but require the learner to use their cognitive ability.
This theory is based on the understanding that people have different perspectives of the world that are based on personal experiences and intuition. This theory is also attributed to the works of Jean Piaget. According to him, the knowledge is acquired based on how the learner interprets and apprehends the meaning about his experiences. Therefore, learning is unique for each student since they all have different perceptions.
Constructivism theorists argue that each person comes up with new concepts that are based on prior knowledge and experiences. Individuals have varying mental models that are used to make sense of past episodes. This theory focuses on preparing people to adjust their ways of thinking to accommodate new happenings and be able to solve problems.
In a classroom set up, this theory is significant in explaining that learners acquire a crucial knowledge upon which they interpret ideas. Students use this knowledge when writing case studies, research projects, problem-based and discovery-based learning. They can create a perception depending on what they have learned in class.
A worldview is a mental model with a set of beliefs about reality that influence a person’s perception, ways of knowing things, thinking and how the individual acts. It is a philosophy of life that consists of people’s belief about ontology (what things exist? Souls? Rocks? Gods? Rocks etc.), explanation for existence, the values of what is good or bad and epistemology (how do we know things which exist, how their work and their value)
Having a world view is important for the following reasons. It creates an understanding the foundation of our belief. Various people have different ways of apprehension depending on their worldview. It convinces to us to accept the explanation about things that exist, why they exist and their values.
It is important to appreciate other people’s beliefs. Knowledge of the worldview enables the society to acknowledge the foundation of other people’s judgments. Individuals have different opinions depending on their worldview. It helps to avoid conflicts on who is right or wrong.
Knowledge of worldviews allows us to focus on the causes rather than symptoms of issues. It reveals the objective truth about reality by reflecting the existence of it. The personal truth that is revealed by the world views serves a motivation purpose, depending on our beliefs.
There are three major worldviews that explain people’s beliefs.
The idea of naturalism was introduced by Emile Zola, a novelist, and French art critic. Philosopher Paul Draper defined this worldview to mean that nothing that does not originate from the world does affect it. This worldview does not acknowledge the existence of supernatural causes of existence. Instead, it relies on logic, science, mathematics, historical methods, trusted experts and experience to explain existence. This worldview trusts science and humanity and acknowledges the connection between man and nature.
This is worldview beliefs in the existence of supernatural powers and supernatural beings that influence human life. This worldview appreciates miracles and deities as explanations for natural phenomena. For instance, Christians believe in the story of creation. They make an assumption or rather belief that the universe and its inhabitants were created by God. There is no tangible evidence about this, but they have faith. The major tenets of a religious worldview include a belief that the something evil happened in the world that causes human suffering. Religious people are convinced that creation was made for the sake of humanity and that God will punish all the evil people. They also believe in the existence of a supernatural being that controls everything
This worldview borrows from humanistic ideas of Petrarch, a philosopher who is believed to be the father of humanism. This worldview appreciates the effectiveness of free thinking and the needs of people and their experiences. According to this theory, human experiences from a basis of knowledge and sharing ideas makes the best life possible for people on this fragile planet.
Worldviews have an impact on classroom teaching. Students also have a worldview. Learners have different ways of appreciating reality. Others believe in science, others religion and others do not believe at all. The teachers’ worldview has a great impact on the learning process. They transfer knowledge and ideas that they believe in or according to their worldview. Study of worldviews enables teachers to appreciate the fact that some students perform well in religious subjects than humanities, sciences and vice versa. For instance, personally, I am a naturalist and I do not believe in miracles. I appreciate science in explanation of existence. I do not believe in miracles or supernatural causes of existence. Science is more convincing and can be tested for approval.
Learning disabilities affect how students process and understand information. The students suffer from disorders that are manifested in difficulties in sight, listening, writing, spelling, and many other forms. Teachers must appreciate students with special needs like learning disabilities. They must accommodate the students by designing instructional methods to meet the needs of the students. Students who learn English a second language also have challenges that are almost similar to those of learners with special needs. The educators must follow tips that provide an accommodating learning environment.
Organize the classroom to limit distractions
Learners with special needs require a healthy balance of structured and unstructured processes. The instructor must ensure that the classroom is well structured and organized. The instructor must teach the students how to organize their study room to avoid confusion. For instance, they should know how to label and organize their books for easy identification. The unstructured aspect requires the learners t change their work area after studying and engage in tasks that involve moving around the classroom. The instructor must ensure that the distractions are not too much because the students will be confused. Breaks should be scheduled, and even their sitting positions should minimize distractions. The students need an environment where they can be attentive.
Using multi-sensory strategies
Students learn in different ways. Others understand concepts that are audio, others visual and others by touching. The teacher must make each lesson multi-sensory as possible. Learners with special needs might have difficulty in area but excel using another. The instructor should create opportunities for tactile experiences.
Breaking down instructions into smaller manageable tasks
Understanding long instructions can be difficult for students with special needs. The educator should use simple concrete sentences. Steps should be broken down into smaller steps that are clear to avoid confusion and improve understanding. The instruction should give simple directions and request the students to demonstrate what they have understood.
Providing opportunity for success
Sometimes, students with special needs feel like they have a less chance of succeeding in some areas. The teacher should motivate them by structuring lessons that can help them grasp the content. Accomplishments by such learners should be reinforced. The educators also need to focus on rules and discipline. They should correct the students when they make mistakes and help the students to focus on academic excellence.
Teachers should use the following strategies for English Langauge Learners. Purposeful grouping- ELL learn best when their classrooms are heterogeneous. They should be given opportunities to interact with students of varying proficiency.
Background knowledge-the instructor should provide ELLs with relevant background knowledge on a topic of discussion. This strategy will activate their understanding and increase their interest.
Extended discussions- ELLs should be allowed time for extra discussions with their classmates to improve their proficiency
Students are required to carry out both qualitative and quantitative research to gain more knowledge. Qualitative research explores humans to find out reasons, opinions, and motivating factors. It gives information into a challenge and helps to come up with ideas for quantitative research. Quantitative research is designed to measure the quantity of a problem by collecting numerical data that can be analyzed to produce important statistics (Ayiro 49). This research is used to quantify attitudes, behaviors and other variables.
Both qualitative and quantitative research is used as ways of inquiry to come up with information that is used to create a deeper understanding or solve a problem. However, there is a difference between the two types of research. They are complementary but have principle differences.
Qualitative research is used to create an understanding of human and social sciences, by appreciating how people think and feel. Quantitative research generates numerical data and facts by utilizing statistical, mathematical and logical techniques. Qualitative research is holistic. It focuses on society as a whole while quantitative research is specific, it can only investigate one aspect at a time. Qualitative research is exploratory, generated and is subjective. However, quantitative research is conclusive, tested and is objective. Quantitative research uses words, pictures, and objects whereas quantitative research sticks to numerical data to conclude findings. Qualitative research is verbal, information is gathered by talking to respondents or writing down responses. However, quantitative research is measurable; the variables have to be measured to come up numerals. These two types of research are different, but both are important depending on the kind of information the researcher wants of a problem he wants to solve.
Students use both quantitative and quantitative research during their study. Students are given research questions and are required to use either method that is suitable to come up with answers for the question. For instance, students might wish to understand dynamics of school performance. Possible research questions for this topic can be; what are the factors that affect the performance of students at school A? And what are the performance dynamics at school A? The first question requires a qualitative research while the later requires quantitative research.
Conducting research on factors that affect the performance of learners will attract the use of qualitative research methods like use of a questionnaire. The researcher will be required to come up with questions for respondents. The questions must be related to the research question and must not include any question that is not related to performance in school. After coming up with the questionnaire, the researcher will establish a way of data collection which can be tape recording or writing down. The investigator then selects a sample of students and administers the questionnaire (Babbie 87). The results are sampled and analyzed to come up with factors that affect student performance.
Understanding the dynamics of the performance of learners in a particular school will require a statistical analysis of the students’ marks over a certain period. The researcher will collect data (from the exams department) and analyze the results by statistical computations. The investigator will determine the mean, standard variance and other averages that will explain the performance trends in the school. The results can then be associated with the factors that affect student performance to come up with a conclusion of factors affect the learners and the impact of the factors.
Every school and each teacher in the school have a set of beliefs that influence the teaching process. The beliefs are philosophies of education that represent answers to questions about the reason for schooling, roles of teachers, what should be taught and the instructional methods that should be used. The four major tenets of educational philosophies present an answer to the questions.
Education focuses on teaching only those elements of academic and moral knowledge that are necessary. According to William C. Bagley, schools should get back to basics. They should develop a strong curriculum that emphasizes of essential educational needs and aim to achieve high academic standards (Phenix 210).
Educations put emphasis on common truths that have stood the test of time. Perenialists encourage students to read Great Books to develop their knowledge of philosophical concepts. Students should acquire information from reliable sources.
This is based on the belief that for students to learn, they must be taught relevant things. Progressivists develop a curriculum that is based on personal experiences, interests and is conscious of student needs. Schools should always review their curriculum to ensure that they match the changing trends and remain to be relevant.
This principle was separated from progressivism because of the need to direct more attention to social evils. Theodore Brameld focused on combining study and social action. They also believe that education should be linked to solving social problems.
Søren Kierkegaard is acknowledged as the major proponent of this theory. He believed that human beings have free will and should shape their futures. Students who learn using this principle have control of their education, and they are encouraged to appreciate diversity and be responsible for their actions.
Each professional educator has their own beliefs of how students should be taught, and so do I. the philosophies influence how the teaching takes place in a learning institution. The following are my educational philosophies.
Students need to learn- education is a need like any other. The primary obligation of a teacher is to fill the need to knowledge by creating and engaging learners in various learning experiences.
Learners need to be active-knowledge is gained by doing. Active learning encourages students to be active in learners. Teachers should acknowledge learners as active participants and provide them skills such as how to take, take notes, memorize and express themselves effectively.
Learning is physiological and involves the whole body- students should be engaged by relevant classroom management and lesson plans. The plans should include activities that enhance the knowledge and skills of learners. The curriculum should be student centered, and it should emphasize exploration, experiential learning, and the production academically significant products.
Other educational philosophies
Students need for timely feedback for them their performance to improve
Students need a well-structured curriculum that allows repetition for them to learn.
Learners need to acquire information for them to have knowledge and develop skills
Tools and resources are important in the learning process.
Educational philosophies are reflected in school practices. My educational philosophies enable me to organize my day in the school and construction classroom activities. It comes up with lesson plans that focus on student needs and those that engage the students physiologically. I provide information that the students need for them to acquire knowledge and skills. I allow students the freedom and responsibility to learn.
Each therapist aims to achieve success by focusing on behavior change of the client. Mental health professionals work with different patients with different severity as listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The therapist needs to identify factors that will influence the effectiveness of a selected treatment model.
The effectiveness of mental illness treatment is based on four major factors as discussed below
Extra-therapeutic client factors
The characteristics of the patient contribute to 40% of the effectiveness of the program. Client attributes that influence the therapeutic session include personal strengths and weaknesses, belief and attitude, and the environment. The strengths and weaknesses of the patient can be utilized to establish a sustainable solution for the problems facing the patient. For instance, if a client is of strong will and committed himself to what e values, the therapist can make him realize how his mental health is important. If the patient attaches a high value to their mental health, he will avoid anything or situation that affects him. The role of the therapist is to identify the strong and weak points of the client. He helps the patient to improve on their strengths and dealing with their weaknesses. The mental health worker establishes solutions in consultation with the client, establishes solutions that will deal with the beliefs and values of the patient.
The mental health worker has the responsibility of creating a conducive therapeutic environment. He should establish rapport and make the client feel comfortable and ready for the session. In re