DNA in Forensic Science

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Forensic science is the use of utilized science in determining the perpetrators of a crime in accordance with the laws of a country. In the previous science used to determine the suspects were generally governed by the fingerprints observed at the scene of the crime whereby they were compared towards an existing database of the population in the area. It led to numerous issues including the capability to extract a fingerprint in a scene whereby several people had get admission to to and determine the exact suspects from the print found. Prints should also easily get misplaced during an inspection of the crime scene. Therefore, this led to a lot of gaps in investigations.

Currently, forensic science through the aid of modern biology has advanced to the use of DNA which is more particular in determining the suspects; this is because different samples containing DNA can be collected ranging from, hair, blood, semen, bone saliva, etc. This sample can also be easily found based on the interactions of human beings in the environment. Analysis can also be more particular in determining the suspect. An example is in the case of a criminal sexual offense that involved intercourse; semen samples can easily be acquired leading to the relevant samples. Advancement in technology has also enabled the analysis of very small samples collected in a crime scene that are crucial in determining the suspect (Buckleton, Bright, & Taylor, 2016). Nevertheless, to get the exact suspect reference DNA is needed by analysts to determine the correct suspect, this is not normally easy to acquire in all countries.

Population evolution

The theory of evolution traces back to billions of years ago to the current state of the universe. All existing organisms in the earth have several cells some of which are similar to the other; however, based on changes of the environment, evolution forces them to change in an attempt to keep up with the new conditions. In the process, some die and some grow stronger this is attributed to the superiority of the gene. Populations comprise of living organisms with similar genes thus they interact, reproduce and co-exist in a similar manner, evolution takes effect as a result of this relationship in the process their offspring changes to adapt with the current environment. Evolution takes its effect as a distinct part of the population and is a collective process and does not pure rely on an individual (Keinan & Clark, 2012).

Evolution takes effect in several ways such as natural selection, mutation, etc. This study is then used in modern biology to determine the sustainability of a particular population in an ecosystem. The theory of natural selection states that since resources are limited compared to the number of living organisms, conflicts may arise in the fight of sustainability in the environment. In the process, the superior organisms that are characterized by a faster rate of reproducing and dominant in the utilization of resources exhaust the resources for other living things in the environment thus causing their depletion to take effect over time slowly.

Plant and animal evolution.

This aspect of biology is similar to the above description of evolution. Nevertheless, it purely relies on natural selection and mutation to determine the sustainability of plants and animal life in their different ecosystems. Mutation is the ability of the living organism to transform in respect to certain conditions of the environment. An example is when a chameleon changes color in order to protect itself from danger in the environment. Evolution has also made some animals to grow bigger while others to grow smaller and weak based on certain factors in the environment (Bejan & Lorente, 2011). In the process, this change in evolution has led the depletion of different forms of animal and plant life. In biology, it is assumed that the bigger the size of an animal or plant the better it is. In retrospect this is quantified by the nature of bigger animals to be stronger, faster, reproduce quickly, live longer and produce many more offspring. This makes them more dominant in certain environments. In the process, this causes the extinction of several living organisms due to the high competition of resources.

Modern biology is thus used as a tool to measure this evolution and analyze ways in which certain plant or animal life can be protracted from extinction through different forms of population control or protection of endangered animal and plant life.

Population growth

Population growth is the measure of the increase in population over a specified period this is achieved through calculating the number of births within the specified period and also considering the number of deaths in the set period. In biology, this measure traces back to the ability of human beings to copulate and eventually give birth to an offspring. Currently, the population growth rate has increased exponentially despite being under their possible biopic potential which would mean getting pregnant after every nine months. Nevertheless, biology also applies in the ability of the environment to sustain this increase in population and at the same time contain the effects of this growth.

This analysis comes under the carrying capacity of the environment, as human beings rely on the environment for almost all of their needs from food, shelter, clothing, oxygen, etc. This means that the ecosystem will have to cater for all these needs. In the process based on technological developments, the population growth rate has also led to the rapid pollution of the environment through waste disposal, and carbon emissions from various industries put up in place to cater for some of this needs (Silva & Anand, 2013). Modern biology is then used as a tool to critically analyze the growth rate and determine how the population rise can be managed in respect to the environments carrying capacity amongst many other factors that are emergent as a result, e.g., waste pollution.

Biomes and ecosystems

Biomes are classified geographical areas within the earth’s planet whereby specific plants and animals live. An eco-system, on the other hand, is classified as the relationship between living and non-living organisms. A biome is different as it classifies an area while an ecosystem is concerned with the type of relationship. Therefore a biome can be made of several ecosystems. The two classifications apply in modern biology to study the earth’s environment or even the existing environment to planets in the universe. This is then used to determine whether different organisms can exist or co-exist within a biome or the nature of their coexistence in the ecosystem (Howarth, 2013).

The study can then be used as a stepping stone to experiment with different living things with the objective of altering the environment positively to enhance the sustainability of the ecosystem and eradicate the chances of extinction of different organisms based on changes in the environment.

The study has also been used to analyze the presence of life in other planets and see if life can be sustained based on the existing conditions of the area and if so what needs to be maintained or altered to improve the sustainability of this environment (Howarth, 2013). This has encouraged the exploration of the environment to areas that have been left unused or idle over centuries to aid in decongesting the rapid growth of the population of certain living things in different environments.

References

Bejan, A., & Lorente, S. (2011). The constructal law and the evolution of design in nature. Physics of Life Reviews, 209-240.

Buckleton, J. S., Bright, J. A., & Taylor, D. (2016). Forensic DNA evidence interpretation. CRC press.

Howarth, R. W. (2013). Biomes and Ecosystems. Salem Press, Incorporated.

Keinan, A., & Clark, A. G. (2012). Recent explosive human population growth has resulted in an excess of rare genetic variants. Science, 740-743.

Silva, L. C., & Anand, M. (2013). Probing for the influence of atmospheric CO2 and climate change on forest ecosystems across biomes. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 83-92.

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