DNA in Forensic Science

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The science of DNA forensics has been applied in various areas thru the analysis of small biological samples in growing a DNA profile. The DNA carries coded messages and is contained within the extraordinary cells in the body that contain a nucleus. It makes use of fingerprinting or blood samples to detect the identity of individuals, specially in crime scenes. There is a variance in the genes and coding parts between different human beings with the encoding proteins being used in the process. One example is that it has for a lengthy time been applied as a forensic blood typing and proteins that are coded in the DNA in criminal investigations. Second, it has been used to set free persons who have been wrongly convicted and finally used in the comparison of different organisms to show their relationship and evolution over time (Balding, 2013). This can be done through the use of body tissues and skin in small samples taken from the plant.
Population Evolutions and Microbial Life
The evolution of microbial life is the interactions between communities and microorganism leads to changes that better enhances their adaptability. The concept is applied in the aspects of phylogenetics and evolution of molecules today which improves the creation of medications and biological cultures that are used in research. Different techniques have been developed with the improvement in technology to improve the growth of better microorganisms that have a positive impact on the environment.
The concept has, therefore, had a positive impact on various dynamics in microbial science in genomics, epidemiology, and mutations. Examples of population evolution and microbial life have today been used in a microorganism that mutates and becomes resistant to various medications such as Staphylococcus aureus. This organism has become methicillin-resistant over time alongside other antibiotics. Additionally, it has not been possible to develop drugs that can cure HIV since the virus mutates and evolves over time developing resistance even for the antiretroviral drugs hence the necessity of adherence for all patients. Similarly, the flu virus evolved through various mutations over time to form a strain that is prevalent in humans and can only be suppressed through medications.
Biological Diversity Evolution
It refers to the development that ensures the sustenance of different species through generation and maintenance of certain life patterns. Since biodiversity has a vital role in ensuring that healthy ecosystems are maintained, the evolutionary forces are imperative for sustaining the living things (Garamszegi, 2014). There should be the presence of genetic diversity to ensure that genetic evolution occurs through a phenotypic change in response to the external environment.
The concept has today been used in various fields such as medicine, research and technology and the development of sustainable food types. The examples are such as ecological diversity which is the difference in ecosystems and natural habitats (Garamszegi, 2014). There is a difference in the species of trees that grow and animals living within different forests across the world. Second, there is genetic biodiversity in which the difference between species is identified. This type of diversity brings about the presence of different breeds of cattle such as ashyire, Guernsey, and others. Third is the preparation and application of polymers that are able to prevent the formation of scales from calcium phosphate and Calcium carbonate within the industrial system (Gu et al., 2013).
Plants and Animal Evolution
Through evolution, plants and animals are believed to have undergone a transformation that led to the occurrence of the most sustainable types. According to the theories of evolution, a different animal and animal species are sustained through natural selection that gradually brings about change within the species (Kingsolver & Diamond, 2011). It is applied in research to understand the changes that occur in plants and animals over time enabling the most resistant species to survive within a certain niche.
Examples include the survival of the mustard seed plant in the southern California drought through a genetic change that enabled it to produce flowers before their season. It, therefore, adapted from having a longer period of growth to a longer one. Flamingoes have also grown longer necks and strong feet as provided by researchers in natural selection, making then adapt to their meat eating practices better than the previous species (Kingsolver & Diamond, 2011). Moreso, it has been possible to domesticate various animals that were once wild through interbreeding to ensure that they have the best traits useful by humans. For instance, dogs used for hunting and protection are known to be from the wolf ancestry, but interbreeding made them more docile as compared to their parents. Consequently, evolution makes many plants and animals to be bigger and more active than their parents enhancing better adaptability to the environment (Kingsolver & Diamond, 2011). Humans have therefore used artificial selection in the domestication of animals, and the technology is currently moving towards genetic engineering.
Population Growth
Population growth is affected by the ecology which is the focus on the characteristics of whole populations rather than individual organisms. The increase in a population is compared to the availability of resources and the different environmental conditions (Kingsolver & Diamond, 2011). Applications of population growth are made in microbiology where the conditions are made conducive for the growth of microorganisms in the laboratory to use in manufacturing processes (Wright, 2014).
An example is in the production of yogurt where the good microbes are culture and provided with the right temperature and nutrients for growth. Another example is the increase in the population of coral reefs that depends on the presence of algae for the provision of necessary nutrients. Also, the food chain and food web within an ecosystem ensure that the predators do not outgrow other producers to enhance sustenance (Kingsolver & Diamond, 2011). The amount of grass has to be more than the primary producers that are also kept in control by the secondary producers.
Biomes and Ecosystems
Biomes refer to large regions that contain similar animals, plants and other living things adapted to various environmental conditions while ecosystems refer to the interactions between living and non-living things as they rely on each other for existence.
Examples of biomes include tropical rain forests, grasslands, desert, Taiga, tundra where different organism, plants, and animals adapt and live (Kingsolver & Diamond, 2011). In one ecosystem, lizards may have long legs adapted to avoid flood and reach for food while in another they move on the ground (Wright, 2014). In the marine biomes, there is primary productivity and coexistence of the living organism with the zooplanktons eating the phytoplankton and are also fed on by the small fish and rise within the other tropic levels to the large predators, sustaining the ecosystems within the sea and ocean. In this way, through the productivity in a given biome, the ecosystem is supported (Wright, 2014). Additionally, there are Boreal coniferous forests that have better-adapted plants such as the broadleaf angiosperms for a better adaptation to the ecosystem susceptible to different catastrophic events.

Balding, D. J. (2013). Evaluation of mixed-source, low-template DNA profiles in forensic science. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(30), 12241-12246.
Garamszegi, L. Z. (2014). Modern phylogenetic comparative methods and their application in evolutionary biology. Concepts and Practice. London, UK: Springer.
Gu, X., Qiu, F., Zhou, X., Qi, J., Zhou, Y., Yang, D., … & Guo, X. (2013). Preparation and application of polymers as inhibitors for calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate scales. International Journal of Polymeric Materials and Polymeric Biomaterials, 62(6), 323-329.
Kingsolver, J. G., & Diamond, S. E. (2011). Phenotypic selection in natural populations: what limits directional selection?. The American Naturalist, 177(3), 346-357.
Wright, S. (2014). The genetical theory of natural selection. Essential Readings in Evolutionary Biology, 73.

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