Any living thing can also be called an organism. The properties of life mentioned below are common to all living things. Every living thing is made up of cells i.e. there are either unicellular or multicellular. A cell consists of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) that is used to transfer genetic information (Rachwal, 2016). Living things experience homeostasis. Photosynthesis and respiration are metabolic processes that help the organism to reach homeostasis. During photosynthesis, the cells of plants take in Carbon IV Oxide and water, and they store the energy they get from the light using chlorophyll (Rogers, 2011).
Photosynthesis: CO2 + H2O light energy ——————> Chlorophyll O2 + CH2O
In the process of respiration, oxygen and carbohydrates are broken down by the cell to release CO2, plus water and chemical energy. Respiration:
O2 + CH2O——————>CO2 + H2O + chemical energy
Living things grow. Cell undergoes division and increase in size. Living things undergo reproduction. Reproduction takes place through:
• Sexual means – offspring are brought to life by fusion of sex cells.
• Asexual means- cell divisions result in generations of organisms (Rogers, 2011).
Living things respond to environmental stimuli. Bacteria move to magnetic fields and hibernate while plants follow the direction of the sun. Living things undergo evolution to escape extinction. All Living things move through muscle contractions.
In his experiments, Mendel crossed different types of the pea plant, i.e. purebred and crossed breeds, collected the outcome and planted the seeds to identify their characteristics. Mendel concluded that living things have traits that determine their features (Rachwal, 2016). He drafted three laws i.e.
I. Law of segregation argues that alleles are separated during garment formation to ensure that every garment carries a single allele for each gene.
II. Law of independent assortment argues that the process of segregating alleles for a single gene takes place independently.
III. The principle of dominance argues that recessive alleles are often masked by the dominant ones.
Canner and Gene Control
Cancer begins when the sequence of cell DNA changes due to mutation hence resulting in abnormal growth of cells. A cancer cell has been found to contain little methylation which promotes cell growth. Several genes are used to control cell growth or diving among cancer patients. The genes undergo tight regulation that ensures DNA is copied well during cell division and DNA errors are repaired at the restriction points (Rogers, 2011).
Rachwal, T. (2016). Precarity and loss: on certain and uncertain properties of life and work. Berlin: Springer VS.
Rogers, K. (2011). The components of life: from nucleic acids to carbohydrates. Chicago, IL: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.