Argentina’s economic ​ ​troubles

Argentina was driven into a terrible financial disaster in December 2001 to 2002 due to a restricted put down freeze, a partial non-payment on a communal problem, neglect, and social and biased disarray. All of these events have heightened concerns about the country's relationship with the IMF since they occurred when its financial regulations were in the nearby IMF's security of the program that was supported by the IMF. Yet, the IMF has been present in Argentina since 1991, during the period of plan convertibility, when the Argentine peso was fixed at parity with the US dollar. Argentina as a country encountered a powerful development as well as very little price increase for much of the1990s this made it go down into a cavernous decline in the year 1998 and for the reason of the organizations of the convertibility system, became improved. When the economy unhurried and the rules of the business people from the outside become nervous, the nation’s already increased outside debt service expended to a level where the debt could not get continued.

The country had been proudly praised for its success in stabilization shortly before the crisis, financial development and orientation of the market reforms below programs sustained by IMF. Through the decade preceding the crisis, Argentina contained four succeeding economic organizations together with its balance of outstanding credit of the IMF decreased rapidly Haussmann & Velasco, 2002).

Factors contributed to the crisis in Argentina

Many factors contributed to a role in building vulnerabilities because of the central explanations cause of the Argentina. These include as follows;

Decrease in the capital flows

This was due to Argentina as a nation depended on a lot of capital inflows besides producing community savings, hence reflecting the relatively slow growth of community economic markets. During the time there was a decrease in international fund flows it turned rapidly expensive for Argentina to increase capital on global resources markets (Haverland, 2008).​ Argentina could not quickly adjust to the distress with an increased depreciation of the actual rate of exchange. The reason for this was due to the convertibility regime, and as well as the relatively the little sizes of their field. It was due to the excellent administration organization that was mature, that the impact of the decrease in inflows was not the unfortunate as it would have been had more of the debts been contracted at shorter maturities. Furthermore, during the unfavorable obligation dynamics took their toll, Argentina finally faced limited options beyond streamlining the debt non-payment (Haverland, 2008).​

The regime of the convertibility

Among the highly known views of challenges, convertibility regime is on top rank due to inadequate pricing and wage changes in a given geographical trade pattern of a country and also the vulnerability of external forces. Therefore it affected the regime’s ability to effecting real exchange rate of currency to deteriorate when need be. As specified, the US dollar strength in the past two decades and the pricing of Brazilian real within the past twenty years facilitated a controlled increase for the Argentina’s real adequate exchange rates which after that lead to imperfect competition and also reduction of growth and exports (Haverland, 2008).​

Nevertheless, convertibility forced Argentina to compare its monetary policy to that of the US not putting in mind the differences in the two countries. Giving considerations to the analysis, Argentina’s conservative strategy would have been made tolerable if the only convertible regime was not in position. However, as the rate of exchange pressure impacted the rise of crediting services by decreasing exports growth, therefore, widening the debt gap in the current account. This was as a result of lack of the feasible political stance.

Institutional and political factors

Political and institutional factors are not realized by many as pro factors that that bound the ability of the federal country to put in place necessary measures when faces by risks. For instance, electoral politics, under political considerations, facilitated tolerations on the required fiscal adjustments in a country that has been entrusted with high public expenditures this has affected the considerable reduction in economic policy elasticity (Krueger, 2002). Corruption, poor governance and inflation among other factors have also been listed as the significant factor that causes a negative impact on the reliability of the system.

Debt dynamics

According to the history of monetary policy, debt dynamics started having a life of its own, which profoundly affected and hindered the policy requirements to the authorities. Most of the commentators urged that after the past decades, the merging of one sizeable existing stock of external debt, imminent country risk hazard and slow growth led the ratio of debt to GDP to increase uncontrollably (Bluestein, 2006).​ These factors depended on one another until it reached a point whereby the government had no way to operate realistic primary extras to place the debt to GDP from further rise.

The system of banking

The banking system of Argentine was regarded the form of economies of the markets that was immersing regarding levels of prudential, liquidity as well as capitalization. The banking sound, an item of maintained efforts by the government, was a crucial carrying element of the convertibility authority because the capability of the central bank to provide as the suppliers of the final resort. The growing efforts years, however, had abandoned the banking system susceptible to any blows further to the confidence of the community (Bluestein, 2006). The way that the government tried to govern the survive through convertibility which includes the regulations that are uncertain in the process of blocking the deposits, forcing the communication of the money conquered assets of the bank and liabilities into pesos at points that are asymmetric. This made Argentina entering with not only currency efforts in the year 2002 in the process of solving the numerous crises as faster as possible.

Structural reform

This factor was the structural rigidity of the economy of the Argentine the missing of change in correcting the issue. Hence, this made the Argentina entering into the crisis. The organization of the convertibility needed that actual exchange rate adjustment were taking place with the changes of the prices, without using movements in the exchange rates that are nominal. This means that in the situation Argentina faced from the year 1995 onwards, family prices as well as the wages needed to fall to pay back the United States money (Weisbrot & Sandoval, 2007). Several traders’ barriers that were directly or indirectly were removed which made the exporters to increase steadily. Therefore, this made the nation’s potentiality to be limited in the process of earning foreign exchange in paying the external debts.

External shocks

It is always showing out that Argentina gained through international financial conditions that characterized more in the year 1990s. The time these conditions started to worsen at the end of the fiscal year, the Argentina effect was so cruel, for a reason, that administration of the convertibility as well as the remaining structural rigidities protected favorable responses regulations that were domestic. Along with the shocks that were external are the crises of the Russian of 1998 that led to the decrease in financial flows to the market economies that are emerging together with the raised in premia risk (Gómez, 2015). The deflation of the Brazilian actual that contained a detrimental effect to the competitiveness of the experts of Argentina which made an increase in Argentina’s real usefulness rate of exchange as well as government financial decrease that began in early 2001 therefore, the price of Argentina’s primary exports was dejected.

Did the IMF help in the country’s rebound?

According to the research conducted by Bluestein (2006), the International Monetary Fund greatly helped the Argentina’s rebound. When Argentina’s ability in accessing global capital markets experienced a substantial deterioration at the end of year 200, the role of the International Monetary Fund changed considerably to administration crisis. Some issues in the year that pursued, International Monetary Fund were affected with a severe situation whether to give funds hence, averting s crisis at the same time prolonging disadvantages that are potentially distributed to different emerging market financials (Bluestein, 2006).​ For every of the central decision making, the evaluation will try to establish the way the International Monetary Fund observed this problem, and how it works to encounter them with the design of the economic as well as the strategy pack up. Moreover, it will contact the way the in making conclusions was achieved and making sure that the alternatives were frequently considered

Mauricio Marci’s election, as well as the arrival of the other administration in late 2015, initiated a turn back in Argentina. A financial crisis has marked the histories of i5 years, a free debt evades, as well as different business regulations which tarnished the global commitments of the South American country (Nash, 1992). The following are the new reforms minded organizations that were put in place as the series of rules in amendment of the economy;

Eliminating strong authorities’ subsidies on the community occasions and driving to reform the codes of taxation.

Answering the problems that are outstanding with the global bondholders through the nation’s earl’s nonpayment.

Going back to the global political as well as traffic cooperation and international markets.

Increasing the most funds and the controls of the currencies hence the devaluation equipment is prompted.

Significantly removing the imports and the exports restrictions and obligations on farming goods and services.

The above adjustments have increased the anticipations on the clear standard term view for the nation. Through the financial prospect, several of these reforms acquired a charge on the economy of Argentina in the year 2016 (Bluestein, ​2006).​ The Argentina GDP bonded up to 2.3%, and the increase in the prices of the country’s costs soared to the nearly more than 40%, slowly constrained by deflation exchange. Nevertheless, this complicated fragment has to be short existed through the International Monetary Fund that predicts the GDP development of command from the amnesty tax rule as well as decreased valuations that should help in driving the controls for community properties in the current year

Return to government economic markets in Argentina

This is considered as the one crucial change that is influencing financier interest Argentina. It was past 14 years way, differences in financial and capital management made Argentina to go back to the global bond market, and also led to its inclusion in the JP Morgan flagship. Promoters’ participants are as well anticipating Argentina’s re-inclusion in the near opportunity that will be a greater thing to be an influencing channel for potential inflows (Avelar, 2013).

The rate and brutality of the crisis of Argentina have been said to be a severe problem the financial provided its great commitment for several years in advance. However, the main guiding principle decision on the rate of trade administration and the lack of encouraging strategies of the structural and the fiscal were the authorities, as well as the financial concerns that were articulated over the susceptibility of the problem in the year 1998 (Avelar, ​2013). Nevertheless, in the struggling about the Argentina crisis, the people in power took the harmful steps without against the Fund’s interests. However, the experience of the financials in Argentina called for the new opinion concerning its role, together with the background of the disaster as well as standard periods (Avelar, 2013).


The crisis of Argentine reveals the weaknesses in the surveillance of the Fund towards identifying untimely on susceptibility which appeared at the time of the boom period, in bringing about the transformation that is required once this helplessness became perceptible. The knowledge emphasizes the danger that the country’s agenda, where the emphasis is focused on the accomplishment of the plan, it is simple in losing sight of the desire for the new and crucial evaluation of the in general way of the regulations. Argentina


Avelar,​ ​F.​ ​(2013).​ ​​Argentina’s economic ​ ​troubles: Debt ​ ​and ​​the ​IMF. ​Law​ ​and Business​ ​ Review​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Americas,​ ​19(1),​ ​95-101.​ ​Retrieved​ ​from

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Blustein,​ ​P.​ ​(2006).​ ​​And ​the ​money kept ​rolling in (and out) ​ wall street, the ​ IMF, and the bankruptig ​of ​ ​Argentina : wall street, the IMF, ​ and the bankrupting of Argentina. New​ ​ York:​ ​Public Affairs.​ ​Retrieved​ ​from​ ​​

Gómez, G. M. (2015). Argentina's parallel currency: The economy of the poor. Routledge. Haverland,​ ​J.​ ​B.​ ​(2008).​ ​​Argentina: economic, political and social issues.​ ​Retrieved​ ​from

Krueger, A. (2002, July). Crisis prevention and resolution: lessons from Argentina. In Speech prepared for National Bureau of Economic Research Conference on the Argentina Crisis. Cambridge, Mass.(July 17).

Nash, N. C. (1992). On the rebound in Argentina. New York Times.

Weisbrot, M., & Sandoval, L.(2007). Argentina’s Economic Recovery. Center for Economic and Policy Research, 1.

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