According to the international theory
The term anarchy can be coined as the absence of any form of supremacy, authority or sovereignty by the world. Consequently, it can be attested that in an archaic nation, there is absolutely no form of a hierarchical supervision or perhaps coercive authority that can be used to settle disputes, impose law, or even order the various systems governing the international politics. Essentially, anarchy is viewed as providing the blueprint for diverse schools of thoughts such as the realist, the liberal, as well as the neoliberal models which endeavor to explain international relations.
Fundamentally, the proponents of realist theory
Hold that individual countries are the cardinal source and participants in international politics. As a result, the theory addresses the idea of anarchy by primarily assuming that the global system is a "self-help" dogma; and therefore, no country is believed to depend on another for security except for itself (Lamy and John Masker 84). Realist theory advocates that the main reason and drive for a country's behavior is basically hinged on its survival, an issue that is viewed in relative terms. Moreover, realists assume that the stability of one country in terms of security will automatically result in reduced insecurity cases in other countries especially the neighboring states. Commonly, the reason behind this situation is that when a country has minimum insecurity levels, then even those who come in or leave it will be required to abide by the governing rules which are designed to reduce crimes.
The concept of "self-help" that has been advocated by the realists
Has become the foundation tool for realism and the neorealism as it provides a structural guideline for other theories in regard to international politics. As a consequence, the Neorealist are frequently known as being structuralists as they advocate and believe that the international politics and other issues related to it can easily be solved through different international systems that have been set forth. In other words, the challenges encountered in international politics can smoothly and harmoniously be solved through different structures which have been developed by the international systems in relation to anarchy as one of its well-known features. Whereas renowned realistic including Machiavelli as well as Morgenthau have ascribed supremacy politics to human nature, however, the neorealists underscore anarchy (Masker 5). The concept was first coined by Lamy and Masker who stated that the lack of higher authority within the international systems is reason enough to prove that each country depends on itself for security and therefore its timely preparedness for war or conflict (Lamy and Masker 83).
Although the realists and the Liberalists concur that international systems are purely an anarchy
By exploiting self-help", liberalists support that international systems can resolve the issues of anarchy whereas liberalists differ as they hold that archly is a construction which can be controlled using different approaches including liberal democratization or liberal institutionalism. In addition, Liberalists asset that free trade can reduce conflict since "economically interdependent states are reluctant to become involved in militarized disputes out of fear that conflict disrupts trade and foreign investment and thus induces costs on the opponents" (Masker 6). Therefore, according to the liberals, there is an opportunity for peace even during anarchy.
Conversely, Constructivist theory refutes that anarchy is basically a threshold prerequisite for international politics
As one of the proactive constructivists, Wendt (44) contended that "anarchy is what states make of it". Suggestively, this is to denote that whereas the worldwide systems are considered as being anarchistic, anarchy has no role in determining the behavior of any state but it solemnly acts as a conduit of nations in the entire system.
Doyle, Michael W. "Liberalism and World Politics." Conflict after the Cold War: arguments on
causes of war and peace (1994): 19-27
Lamy, Steve, and John Masker. Introduction to global politics. Oxford University Press, 2016: 83-145
Masker, John Scott. "Introduction to Global Politics: A Reader." (2011): 5-10
Wendt, Alexander. "Anarchy is What States Make of it: The Social Construction of Power
Politics: A Reader (1992)." International Theory. Palgrave Macmillan, London, 1995. 44-54.