About Jacques Cartier

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Jacques Cartier, who was born in 1491 in Saint-Malo, a port situated in the northwest of Brittany, was a respectable mariner. When he married a member of the royal family, Mary Catherine des Granches, his social standing substantially improved. He is mostly known for giving his name to Canada and also for exploring the St. Francis River and drawing a map of the gulf and shores of this river (Lackey, 2006).
Where he was sailing from, and the direction he was taking.
Jacques Cartier sailed across the ocean from France on his first voyage, using two ships; he disembarked across the newfound land where he explored the area where he discovered the Island of Prince Edward. Later, he sailed across the Gulf of St. Lawrence past Anticosti Island (Lackey, 2006).

He was later sent on another expedition where he sailed up the St. Lawrence River up to Montreal; the winter caught up with him at a village in Iroquois after the winter he headed back to France and told the king that there was an armored river that would lead to Asia. This voyage was considered a disappointment because he had no proof of either the river or the wealth (Cook, 2017).

He was later sent on a third voyage, he departed Saint-Malo on May 23, 1541, with five ships. He anchored at Stadacona, but because of the Iroquois, he found there, he did not establish a settlement but proceeded up to a spot he had observed earlier and settled there and named the place Charlesbourg royal. He later left in search for Saguenay, but on reaching Hochelaga, he could not proceed because of the rapids. He went back to Charlesbrough where he found that the natives were no longer friendly and so he headed back to France (Cook, 2017).

2. Motivation behind the exploration

Jean le Veneur introduced Jacques Cartier to king Francis 1. The bishop, Jean le Veneur, quoted Jacques ability to ‘lead the ships to the discovery of new lands in the New World.’ In the year 1534, he set sail following the command of the king, with the hope that he would discover a passage to the rich Asian markets. The command from the king stated that “discover certain islands and lands where it is said that large quantities of gold and other precious things can be found.” (Brezima, 2016)

On his third voyage, he was sent so that the French could find the ‘kingdom of Saguenay ‘as they had already given up their hopes of finding a passage to Asia. They wanted to establish a settlement along St. Lawrence River and get all the riches of that land.

3. Interactions/ encounters with native people

Jacques first encountered with the Micmac at Chaleur Bay. They greeted his ship with about 40-50 canoes. Carter was afraid to make any contact because they were so many Indians, he, therefore, tried frightening them by firing light artillery. They still approached him signaling that they wanted to trade because they had encountered Europeans earlier and they knew what they wanted. He sent some men ashore with iron goods, and knives and a fast trade took place

He also had an encounter with the Beothuk, and he described their red ochre rubbing on their hair and bodies practice. It led to the Native Americans being referred to as red.

He later encountered a group of Iroquois who had come to the Saint Lawrence to fish mackerel. They welcomed him with songs and dances and were very eager to get hold of the items that the French men had with them. He, however, described them as amazing thieves.

4. Benefits and consequences of the exploration

Jacques Cartier established the fur trade. This trade began when he met with the Iroquois and exchanged a hat for the chief, iron goods, and knives and they gave him fur.

Jacques took from the native’s ten people including their leader and two of his sons and promised that after one year he would return them. Four years came to pass before Carter could go on his third voyage and all of them had already died except for one girl.

After he admitted that they had died, the friendliness between him and the natives ended and the Iroquois became hostile. They killed 35 of his men; Cartier, however, went on and collected some jeweler though he rushed so that he could get out of Canada.

When the winter set as he was in the Iroquois village, his men were affected even though they used the treatment provided to them by the natives and he ended up losing 25 men to scurvy (Woog, 2013).

5. The Outcomes of the exploration.

Jacques Carter came up with the name Canada though it was by mistake. The name Canada came from the word Kanata which was used to refer to the two settlements at Stadacona and Hochelaga.

Having discovered the entrance of St. Francis during his first expedition, he opened up the waterway for the Europeans to penetrate North America.

His explorations also allowed the French government to lay claim on the land of Canada. Though some of his actions towards the natives were dishonorable, he established a friendship which formed the foundation of the French settling in that territory.Bibliography

Brezima, C. (2016). Jacques cartier.

Cook, R. (2017). The Voyages of Jacques Cartier.

Lackey, J. (2006). Jacques Cartier: exploring the St. Francis river.

Woog, A. (2013). Jacques Cartier.

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