Different levels of the fat in milk influence the taste/texture of ice cream since the form of milk used to produce ice cream is different. Ice cream has a better taste / texture than ice cream made of skim milk when it is used with high fat milk (3.25%) since fat molecules are broken and air pockets are retained during the mixing process to make the ise cream smooth. Due to the smaller crystals formed compared to fatty milk that fat gives the ice cream a smooth structure. With a decrease in the fat content of milk used in its processing, the taste appeal of ice cream is diminished. The coarse texture of ice cream made from milk with low fat content is because of the larger crystals formed compared to crystals formed in ice cream manufactured from high fat content milk.
Ice cream recipes call for salt because it lowers the freezing point of water. The salt prevents the ice from melting allowing the ice cream formation process to be complete. If salt was not added, ice would melt causing the ice cream mixture to melt and ice cream would not form. Salt lowers the temperature of the ice water lower than 320 F without freezing allowing the ice cream mixture to freeze. For ice to melt it absorbs a lot of heat from the water but since the freezing point of water is much lower because of the salt, it does not freeze. The water is colder causing heat to flow from the cream mixture causing the cream to cool down rapidly preventing the ice cream from melting.
Fat offers ice cream its smooth taste and prevents the formation of large crystals as water freezes and lubricates the freezer barrel when ice cream is manufactured. Fat also spreads the flavor in ice cream by binding the aroma carrying compounds in ice cream. This is achieved by the presence of emulsifiers that ensure the fat is spread well giving the ice cream a smooth creamy taste.
The basic components of ice cream include whole milk, sweeteners, stabilizers, emulsifiers, and flavorings. Whole milk contains fat that offers richness and creaminess to ice cream while other milk solids stabilize the air incorporated in ice cream. The milk solids also surround fat globules preventing them from combining to form larger fat globules allowing the ice cream to remain smooth. Sweeteners lower the freezing point and give ice cream its sweetness while stabilizers control crystallization of ice and add viscosity. Emulsifiers in the ice cream aid in keeping fats and liquids together since these substances naturally repel each other. Emulsifiers also ensure the fat is evenly distributed giving the ice cream its smooth taste.
Stabilizers have high water holding capacity and are added to ice cream to keep water in the ice cream. When ice cream is taken from the freezer, melting occurs but freezes again in the freezer. The stabilizers lock the water in the ice cream such that when melting occurs the water does not escape from the ice cream and form larger crystals that would coarsen the texture of the ice cream. The presence of stabilizers in the ice creams prevents the formation of large crystals in the ice cream that could make the ice cream unpleasant to eat and icy. Stabilizers, therefore, ensure ice remains smooth for a long time even when it is not refrigerated on transit.