Western Civilization Paper

Question 1

Galileo claims that God is the universe's creator and all that exists within it. These inventions are literally embodied in the Bible, and it is the responsibility of humans to decipher God's work and to elaborate the true nature of the universe (Galilei, n.d). According to the preceding reason, God has a physical body and emotions. He made the real world, heavenly bodies, and the powers that hold them all together. God, I believe, is the father of the universe and all of its creatures. The Bible was written to provide metaphysical knowledge about the universe; it was not pragmatic about nature depending on the time and culture in which it was written (Galilei, n.d). I believe that human beings should use sense, experience, and reasoning to study the universe, since these aspects of learning facilitate the understanding of the physical world; the Bible does not do so.

Question 2

Thomas Paine believed in deism form of religion that was mainly based on the inconsistencies in the Bible. This kind of religion is called the philanthropy. Thomas Paine had faith in God, but did not believe in the doctrines of the Jewish church that, according to him, lacked consistencies in most of the Christian teachings (Paine, n.d.). I believe that the philanthropy religions doctrines are not rational; they tend to distinguish themselves from the basic Christian dogmas that are stipulated in the Bible. The Bible is the main book of reference to Christianity; it was written during the early times to guide Christian believers and philosophers in translating the work of work. Scientists also believed in Christian doctrines, and they borrowed a lot of ideas that enabled them to explore the existence of the universe; therefore, it remains to be a rational book (Paine, n.d).


  1. Galilei, G. (n.d.). Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina of Tuscany, 1615. Modern History Sourcebook. Retrieved on October 20, 2017 from https:\/\/sourcebooks.fordham.edu\/halsall\/MOD\/galileo-tuscany.asp

  2. Paine, T. (n.d.). Of the religion of Deism compared with the Christian religion. Modern History Sourcebook. Retrieved on October 20, 2017 from https:\/\/sourcebooks.fordham.edu\/halsall\/mod\/paine-deism.asp

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