The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) was formed in 1947 after the ratification of the National Security Act by Harry S. Truman 33rd President of the U.S. ("About CIA — Central Intelligence Agency"). The functions of the CIA directors are numerous but all of them are aimed at improving the security of the United States. First, gathering information by use of human resources and other appropriate means, and most of them operate without the assistance of police or internal security. Second, they provide all direction and coordinate the collection of national intelligence in foreign nations through the use of human sources and Intelligence Community that is authorized to carry out such function of collecting and coordinating with other agencies and departments of the U.S. government. In undertaking such functions the involved personnel have to ensure effective use of resources and well as ensuring the U.S and those of involved in the collection of the information are not exposed to risk ("About CIA — Central Intelligence Agency"). Third, CIA has the responsibility of correlating and assessing intelligence associated with the federal security and offering suitable ways of disseminating such intelligence. This paper will discuss the various success of CIA as outlined in part two “A Strange Kind of Genius” in Weiner’s book.
After the death of Joseph Stalin, a feared secretary General of Communist Party, the director of CIA started to complain that they had no plan of how to deal with whoever would take immediately after their great leader (Weiner, p.73). The new director of CIA complained that government had no comprehensive plan for dealing with the situation as a way of weakening the Soviet Union. On the other hand, Stalin had not laid master plan that would facilitate the next leader to run the Union with less struggle. According to Nikita Khrushchev, a man who took the leadership role of Stalin could not do anything that would provoke a war with the U.S. He feared his nation going to war with large countries such as the U.S. they would be defeated, hence he was using Eastern Europe as a shield for the national security of Georgia. The strategy used by Stalin for killing his internal enemies without provoking the outside world was a huge advantage to the Soviet people and the Americans. The Americans enjoyed peace and prosperity doing potatoes business with Soviet people under the leadership of President Eisenhower (Weiner, p.74). However, the peace came at the cost of a skyrocketing arms race, a permeant war economy, and political witch hunts.
Eisenhower’s main challenge was confronting the Soviet Union without triggering World War III, or destabilizing American Democracy. The President feared that the high cost of the cold war would ruin the U.S as the generals would consume the treasury. The CIA had to step for him to start using secret weapons such as covert action and nuclear bombs. The strategy was much cheaper as compared to the multibillion-dollar fighter jets and flotillas of aircraft carriers. According to the CIA analysis, with adequate nuclear firepower, the U.S. was able to deter the Soviet from triggering a new world war, or defeat their opponents if it started. Additionally, using a worldwide campaign of covert action, the U.S. would avert the spread of communism or roll back the Russians.
In 1953, the Soviet Union tested its first weapon of mass destruction and at this time CIA had no clue since no hint had been given by the Union. The American government knew that the cost of winning a global war would be costly and it might also lead to the destruction of American Democracy. Due to the inability of CIA to control communism, on 16th June same year, about 370,000 German (workers and students) went to the streets to demonstrate against their oppressors by destroying and burning Soviet Building and trashing police cars(Weiner, p.76). Since the CIA had not been expecting such as huge war, they realized they could do nothing to save the rebels. Hence, as a strategy the CIA did not confront the Soviet Union as this would incite the citizens and eventually, the uprising crushed. After the uprising had collapsed, the President of the U.S. ordered CIA to start training and equipping underground organizations that have the capability of launching a huge raid or sustained warfare, in Germany and other Soviet territories. The plan to attack German and other Soviet satellite was not successful and instead they launched a fight in other regions like Middle East, Asia, Latin America, and Africa after the crumble of their colonial empires. The leadership of President Eisenhower, the CIA undertook 170 new significant covert actions in 48 states- psychological and paramilitary warfare missions in places where the U.S. spies knew little about the language and culture of the folks (Weiner, p.77).
After the Korean War, some officers were selected to conduct a research with the CIA system. A report revealed a rapidly deteriorating situation – confusion, widespread frustration, and purposelessness. The report changed nothing as they continued to face personnel shortage to lead global missions. To counter this, President Eisenhower started formulating strategies that would transform CIA into an efficient instrument of presidential power. Due to internal wrangles between the secretary general and his second-in-command- Bedell Smith would act as a spy in the CIA and would go to link the information to the President. He also carried out secretive duties from the White House and the National Security Council. Due to the crucial information, he organized the only successful coup in the history of America. The coup was succeeded by coercion, bribery and brute force, but by secrecy and cunning has it had been reported.
The operation was a proof that CIA was an essential agency in the prosperity of democracy. By 1953, CIA was an established element of government and its contribution in the areas of paramilitary warfare and political actions were recognized and highly respected. The Agency attracted prominent academicians, lawyers, and highly committed patriots in the nation. Due to these great minds, the agency formed its basic structure, which facilitated its operation for about 20 years. The Korean War, the internal organization of the Agency, and the U.S. foreign policy lead to the enormous growth of the CIA. The Agency became six times its size back in 1947 when it was formed ("About CIA — Central Intelligence Agency").
The nation has never organized another coup because the agency’s officers are guided by professional ethos, which serves as core values, abiding principles, and highest aspirations. First, service guides the officer to prioritize nation before their personal interests as well as mission before oneself. Second, the agency believes in teamwork as the force are required to check each other’s back. The officers should collaborate in both internal and external missions. Third, the officers have to take courage while executing their duties since they are always involved in difficult and very risky activities. Fourth, integrity ensures that officers’ conduct their activities in a lawful manner. The officers have to provide information and analysis with no political or institutional bias to ensure all activities are accountable and transparent. Lastly, stewardship ensures officer preserve their ability to garner secrets by protecting methods and sources of information from the time a mission starts to the last minute when it ends ("About CIA — Central Intelligence Agency").
In Japan, CIA played an important role in ensuring that the countries adopted democracy and abolish communism. The essential interaction between the Liberal Democratic Party in Japan and the CIA was an exchange of classified information for money. The CIA supported the party as well as recruiting new informers within it. After the body established firm structure and became more sophisticated, it changed its ways of conducting operations. The agency stopped bankrolling foreign politicians who were initially given a suitcase full of money and started using trusted businessmen who deliver the money for benefits of its allies. In 1955, Kishi, unified Japanese conservatives as through his leadership skills and resources he was getting from the CIA (Weiner, p.119). He gave the CIA the power and authority to recruit and run his political followers as a strategy to maneuver to the top seat, he promised to work with the CIA in order to formulate and ratify a new security treaty between the U.S. and Japan. The Kishi was crowned a prime minister and in 1957, he visited the U.S, with an aim of collaborating with the U.S. to help him consolidate his power (Wiener, p.120). He knew if they could make a deal with the America, CIA who provided all required financial resources to execute his operations. To convince, the U.S., he told President by allowing Japan to be a communist the rest of Asian nationals would follow the suit. The president declared full support for Japan in terms of both security and financial support.
President Eisenhower wanted to take control of the whole Asia and the Middle East and change their system of government. According to the president’s opinion, if the Secretary of CIA and a few members of National Security Council could go and live for a while in Asia, they would easily be convinced to embrace democracy as most of them were tired of dictatorship. The CIA started its mission in Asia, by trying to coerce, convert, and control governments in the whole continent of Asia and the Middle East. Due to the oil mines in Iraq and Iran, CIA found itself fighting with Moscow as both were struggling to gain political and economic control in the regions. The most power Muslim political leaders seized the CIA’s cash and counsel since most of the agency officers could not understand the language being used in the region. The CIA used a dollar as the only weapon to gain loyalty in the Middle East.
The CIA shaped the current Middle East as they were determined to end the authoritarian which saw middle citizens in the regions oppressed and wallow in poverty while their counterparts were enjoying the fortune from the oil mines. Those individuals who worked in the oil mines were paid peanuts and lived in shanties while the powerful lived in the posh neighborhood. The CIA was behind the 1953 coup against an Iran prime minister who had been elected democratically (Dehghan and Norton-Taylor). The British government was attempting to prevent the dissemination of information that showed the role CIA had played in bringing democracy in the country. The military coup overthrew elected Prime Minister Mosaddeq, and National Front cabinet was instituted as the highest level of government by the CIA under the directives of U.S. foreign policy. After Mosaddeq was overthrown, the American and British dominate in the state and the Shah’s rule became a bit insignificant. However, in 1979 Islamic revolution took place which aimed at strengthening Iranian monarchy to safeguard the oil from the Western Countries (Dehghan and Norton-Taylor).
Currently, the CIA works independently and it is responsible for providing intelligence to the government of the U.S. starting from national security officers to the policymakers. The director of the CIA is appointed by the president although he has to seek advice and approval from the Senate. The Director is responsible for managing all operations, budgets, and personnel of the CIA. The operation of the CIA id guided by their vision which states that CIA’s insights, information, and activities continuously provide a strategic and tactical advantage for the U.S. The CIA, keeps on adjusting and adapting to the emerging trends in order to fit the ever-changing global landscape. The CIA is the U.S. and the globe’s leading foreign intelligence agency and it is mostly shaped by its robust past.
"About CIA — Central Intelligence Agency". Cia.Gov, 2018, https://www.cia.gov/about-cia. Accessed 11 Apr 2018.
Dehghan, Saeed, and Norton-Taylor, Richard. CIA admits role in 1953 Iranian coup. The Guardian. 19 Aug. 2013. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/aug/19/cia-admits-role-1953-iranian-coup. Accessed 11 Apr 2018.
Weiner, T. Legacy of ashes: The history of the CIA. 2007. https://www.e-reading.club/bookreader.php/140769/Legacy_of_Ashes:_The_History_of_the_CIA.pdf. Accessed 11 Apr 2018.