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# The Greek Mathematician and Physicist Archimedes

## The Greek mathematician Archimedes

The Greek mathematician Archimedes was born into a scientific culture. According to his biography, his father was an astronomer and the family spent most of their time in Syracuse. They also spent time in Alexandria, where Ptolemy Lagides built the largest library in the world. This library became a central location for scholars throughout the ancient world.

## Archimedes was a mathematician

Archimedes was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, astronomer, and inventor from the ancient city of Syracuse in Sicily. He is considered one of the most influential scientists of classical antiquity. His contributions to mathematics, astronomy, engineering, and inventions are widely known and celebrated today.

### He left behind a number of mathematical treatises

The sphere and cylinder treatises contain the principal results of Archimedes' calculations. They show that the surface area of a sphere with radius r equals the diameter of the greatest circle and that the volume of a sphere is equal to two-thirds of the volume of a cylinder. Archimedes died around 212 or 211 B.C. and is considered one of the greatest mathematicians of all time.

### Archimedes contributed to the development of mathematics and the history of the sciences

He built on the work of Eudoxus of Cnidus and expanded on it. Eudoxus had already discussed the method of exhaustion in his works, but Archimedes applied it to solve the question of the circumference of a circle. In doing so, Archimedes was able to calculate the number pi.

## He invented the Archimedes screw

In the 3rd century BC, Greek mathematician Archimedes devised a new way to lift water from the ground. Using a hollow tube and spiral with a handle at one end, the screw lifted water from a lower source and deposited it in a higher location. The screw is still used today for irrigation in many developing countries.

### The screw is named after Archimedes, a Greek who lived in Syracuse

He was extremely smart for his time, and his many inventions include the Archimedes Principle, which uses displacement to calculate mass. His other invention is the Archimedes Screw, a screw-like shaft that he used to move water from one place to another.

## He invented "engines of war" to defend Syracuse

Archimedes invented many "engines of war" during his lifetime, many of which were used to defend Syracuse from Roman attacks. His inventions include enormous mirrors that reflected light, fire-starting devices, and various catapults used to hurl rocks and 500-pound boulders at enemy soldiers. However, Archimedes was murdered by a Roman soldier shortly after the siege ended.

### Archimedes was also credited with the invention of the odometer

While his inventions are not considered "engines of war" per se, they do show that he applied science to sharpen his mind. Syracuse was attacked by the Romans during the Second Punic War, and Archimedes' inventions were essential for the defense of the city.

## He was a mathematician

Archimedes is widely regarded as one of the greatest mathematicians of all time. His discoveries helped us understand some of the most basic physical phenomena. He invented the first lever and introduced the laws of buoyancy and equilibrium of fluids. He was also a contributor to theories in the fields of hydrostatics and hydrodynamics.

### The work of Archimedes was referenced in many ancient Greek writings

His mathematical innovations became very useful to people and even led to the defense of Syracuse during a long siege by the Romans. Unlike many other mathematicians during this time, Archimedes applied his knowledge to real-world situations.

### Among his many achievements is the discovery of pi

A number that gives the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter. He also invented a method for representing large numbers. Previously, numbers were represented using the letters of the alphabet, which was very limited.

## He was an inventor

Archimedes was a Greek engineer-inventor who combined the skills of a theoretical scientist and an engineer. He invented many useful devices, including military vehicles and a planetarium. He also wrote numerous treatises on many subjects. His most important discoveries were in the field of physics, where he discovered the law of buoyancy, which states that a body immersed in a liquid experiences a force of upward buoyancy equal to the weight of the liquid displaced by the body.

Archimedes also developed the pulley. A pulley is a wheel that supports a cable or rope. It works in the same manner as a lever, by providing a mechanical advantage to the operator, and reducing the force required to move a load.