The Fourth Amendment and The Plain View Doctrine

To begin with, this essay analyzes the fourth amendment in regards to the plain view doctrine. This doctrine gives police officers permission to seize items deemed as evidence or illegal contraband. It often applies when police are in an area protected by the amendment. However, there are exceptions to this rule the officer must have probable cause. In Arizona V. Hicks, an office failed to provide sufficient cause for checking and recording serial numbers of allegedly stolen items due to him being in the scene for another crime (Powell, 2016). In addition to this, the object must be immediately apparent calling forth irregularities that come from illegal search and seizures. In addition to this, two situations that warrant searches are entry into prisons and at airports. This is because these areas are the most likely to result in the introduction of contraband into highly regulated and secure areas. As such body searches are merited.

Question Two

Secondly, this essay looks at the Black September Group and whether or not it achieved its effectiveness and lessons learned in the aftermath of the attack at the Olympic Games in Munich. In “The Most Beautiful Olympic Games That Were Ever Destroyed,” Hansen outlines their aim as bringing attention to the Israel-Palestine rift caused by the creation of the state of Israel. To this effect, the group had already assassinated the Jordanian Prime Minister. Furthermore, the kidnapping of Israel’s athletes was meant to force Israel to release 234 Palestinians and non-Arabs jailed in the country (2016). The actions of the German police force and the Israeli police force saw the killing of the eleven hostages held due to the lack of coordination between the two forces. The Germans were understaffed at the venue and failed to cooperate with the Israelis effectively. Furthermore, the Israelis launched two rescue missions that failed causing the terrorists to execute the remaining nine hostages after two were killed the previous night (Wagner, 2016). It is the perspective of this essay that the Munich terror attack was unsuccessful because the terrorists failed in their primary mission which was to secure the release of prisoners in Israel.

Question Three

Lastly, this essay explores various counterterrorism policies. These policies are often considered controversial because they often deal with the issue of privacy and the ability of individuals to have autonomy in certain areas. However, it my belief that these measures that are taken are important in ensuring the safety of the citizens of a country. Examples of these tactics in Israel are ethnic profiling, assassinations, detentions, Intelligence reporting and HUMINT, a division made up of informants and spies embedded in potentially problematic areas such as Palestine (Freilich, 2017). The controversy surrounding this emanates from the universal view that all humans are viewed as innocent until proven guilty and thus should have their rights infringed upon. Israel, however, utilizes these strategies to protect its country and citizens who are always at a constant threat of annihilation from radicalized groups that are mostly anti-Semitic.


Freilich, C. D. (2017). Israel's counter-terrorism policy: how effective? Terrorism and political violence, 29(2), 359-376.

Hansen, J. (2016). “The Most Beautiful Olympic Games That Were Ever Destroyed” (Munich 1972). In Surveilling and Securing the Olympics (pp. 144-161). Palgrave Macmillan, London.

Powell Jr, L. F. (2016). Arizona v. Hicks.

Wagner, C. (2016). Munich 1972. Tragedy, Terror and Triumph at the Olympic Games.

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