The philosophical concept and political ideas of post-colonialism have gained considerable population in the academic realm. The term is used to describe the nature of the world today, particularly, in the context of the level of liberation achieved. More specifically, post-colonialism is an academic study focusing on the legacy of imperialism and colonialism concentrating on the impact of exploitation and control of colonized people and their land. Colonialism, on the other hand, refers to a system of government and underlying ideologies that result in imperialism. On a deeper level, post-colonialism evaluated the political and social power relationships that sustain neocolonialism. On the other hand, anti-colonialism is a term applied to movements whose objective is to oppose any form of colonialism or imperialism. The current body of literature indicates insistence by some scholars that post-colonialism is not an important concept in the contemporary world; however, the idea is a problematic one because colonialism still exists. Indeed, anti-colonialism is a relevant concept as a different movement as still paying renewed attention to the idea of post-colonialism.
A form of post-colonialism and relevance of Anti-colonialism Movements
According to Farred (2014), after the First World War, the victorious Entente powers, for example, Japan, and United States continued to increase their dominance over the developing countries across the world. Numerous other nations focused on increasing their monopoly using corporation worldwide creating major social and economic disruptions in the less developed states. Different parts of the globe began practicing neoliberalism which is a theory that stress global trade which allow most of the western countries attain domination by transnational monopoly capital, privatization of public services and enterprises and deregulation of the economy. As an outcome, countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin American started experiencing pressure as a result of control that ensued (Farred, 2014, p. 229). In particular, post-colonialism arose because such nations did not and still do not have an alternative source of aid for development or trade. Therefore, they are forced to depend on the powerful capitalist states to survive and advance future of their people. Nations such as the United States have continued to promote a program that benefits the ruling classes significantly. They are developing, or economically struggling states are forced to concentrate on cheap raw materials turning them into low wage havens for numerous organizations seeking to outsource their production (Farred, 2014, p. 229). For example, since 2000s, there has been an effort to cut debts for the developing countries. However, for the last seventeen year, the debt has only increased. The pressure has forced some of the leaders to conform to post-colonialism, for instance, Jamaica Prime Minister Michael Manley was subjected to destabilization through sabotage. Manley was left with no choice but to surrender to the neo-liberalism demand of the United States (Farred, 2014, p. 237). According to Choudry, Majavu, and Wood (2013), neo-colonialism occurs when outside forces direct a nation's political policy and economic system. Much of the African, Asia, and Latin American post-colonialism manifest in the form of international monetary fund structural and World Bank programs which has been functioning for the last thirty years.
As a result, indigenous people and colonized countries have been in the forefront of analyzing and mobilizing effort against neoliberal capitalism emphasizing cessation of commoditization of product and trade. There has been development of social movement which indicates the new global acceptance of existence of post-colonialism. Indigenous people from countries in Africa, Latin America and Asia have been engaging in political movements in an attempt to firs against imperialism they continually experience (Choudry, Majavu, and Wood, 2013, p. 7). For example, the indigenous movements in North and South parts of the globe often expressed their resistance to the post-independence paradox or assertion of sovereignty over their lives and land by liberal social democratic. Their self-determination and struggle for decolonization are a clear indication of existence of anti-colonial effort to attain genuine autonomy. At the same time, the Zapatistas are also sufficient example of how developing countries are grappling with the challenge of post-colonialism (Choudry, Majavu, and Wood, 2013, p. 7). The Zapatistas statement for freedom resonates from numerous countries across the world, for instance, Australia, South Africa and Aotearoa. In a vast number of instances, the developing countries have been resisting environment, social and corporate oppression predicting a scenario for rest of the globe. For example, the Di Kapoor have put effort to resist forestry and mining development in Orissa, India (Choudry, Majavu, and Wood, 2013, p. 7). People have been struggling against post-colonialism in attempt to attain meaningful political, economic, and social dominance both internationally and locally.
Porsanger (2014) further highlights some of the many ways in which indigenous people resist colonialism. In particular, the author demonstrates that anti-colonialism share information and available resources to assist other communities and groups to collaborate with one another and protect their liberation. Most specifically, the world has seen development of strategic alliance and international protocols that have been providing sustained critique to the practices employed by countries such as United States’ corporations (Porsanger, 2014, p. 16). The practical critique of indigenous people is one of the numerous ways been used to struggle for equal incorporation in the global market and recognition. The efforts indicate the relevance of anti-colonialism in a postcolonial age. The technique has allowed economically and socially colonized countries to root their critique in anti-capitalist perspectives that emerge from non-Western sources such as the struggle for the indigenous people against neoliberalism has been fundamental to the spread of resistance to other societies worldwide (Porsanger, 2014, p. 16). For instance, Canada launched mobilizations with anti-colonial elements, for example, “Idle No More,” which an ongoing fight to attain immigration justice in Europe and South Africa. The effort has illuminated the postcolonial injustices, especially, through the idea and opinions of anti-colonialist, for instance, scholars like Canral and Fanon who have remained relevant despite having published their work years ago (Porsanger, 2014, p. 22).
As such, the current literature contains numerous articles that involve anti-colonialists focusing on critiquing post-colonialism. For example, the Lok Adhikar Manch (LAM) which is a trans-local rural solidarity movement consisting of 15 social networks including Dalit, and Adivasi, pastoralist, nomads, horticulturalists and fisherfolk in India. The movement undermines dispossession and displacement (Porsanger, 2014, p. 22). Further, Kapoor (2013) demonstrates that anti-colonial institutions such as LAM are also against the state-market-civil society nexus that creates and deploy laws to normalize and legalize dispossession and displacement. Additionally, the approach encourages post-displacement to rehabilitate and re-settle the market schemes. LAM has been engaging people in informal and popular education deliberately to organize and reinforce the movement to penetrate the different extents and processes used to propagate post-colonialism (Kapoor, 2013, p.39). Therefore, the existing of LAM and its effort to challenge neoliberalism in India is a clear indication that anti-colonialism is still relevant in the post-colonial age.
Additionally, there has been a whirlwind effort in the global south that started in 2014 creating activities across the regions of Africa, Latin America, and Asia consisting of informal sectors workers, women, landless individuals, indigenous people, slum-dwellers, marginalized youths, and peasants (Kapoor, 2013, p.39). As such, there has been the formation of post-colonial social movements that is different ways are challenges disenfranchisement and dispossession. At the same time, the groups propose alternatives to establishment of neo-liberal orders (Kapoor, 2013, p.39). The movements are focused on demanding social justice and national sovereignty, especially, because resources have subjugated to the Western imperialism which began in 1700s. Therefore, the problem is the primary cause of the anti-colonialism in 21st century in the global South through creation of postcolonial social movements. At the start of 2000s, the anti-colonial nationalism in Africa and Asian experienced fundamental transformation carried out by native cities in an attempt to mobilize populations into the nationalists which confirms the relevance of anti-colonialism in the post-colonial era (Kapoor, 2013, p.39). At the same time, it is imperative to note that the transformation resulted in the awakening of revolutionary upheaval in Russia and Mexico as the national leader began putting efforts toward mobilization of workers and peasants leading to the formation of large-scale movements. The scope of mobilization broadened resulting in the development of substantive anti-colonial movements seeking to achieve liberty and equality of people. The groups have since their formation been fighting post-colonial development project that focused on national capitalism in which industries and agriculture are modernized through leadership and initiatives of developed states (Kapoor, 2013, p.39). As an outcome, the anti-colonial movements have forged networks through alliances between the dominant industries and agrarian interests to claim their property rights and privileges as well as access to political powers and public employment.
Countries in Africa and Asia formed social movements in late 1990s and early 2000s in response to the Structural Adjustment Program (SAPs) created by the World Bank in response to the international debt crisis. The establishment of the plan allowed global south countries to borrow many which resulted in increased debt as result of loans taken (Porsanger, 2014, p. 27). The Western world used the program to conduct initiatives that have been perceived as post-colonial efforts. Therefore, the global south carried out a vast number of reforms geared towards achieving transformation of their economic and political situations, particularly, against privatization of utilities and public sector companies, deregulation of commodities and prices in the market (Porsanger, 2014, p. 27). Different nations in African and Asia are still concerned about the international debt crisis that heralded the neo-colonialism and unraveling post-colonialism by development states. In particular, states in the southern part of the globe withdrew from the agreement put forward by the World Bank as result of neo-imperialism which as evidenced by escalation of declining trends in social development and poverty in nations in Africa and Latin America in 1990s and 2000s (Porsanger, 2014, p. 27). In response, there has been creation of a popular resistance or austerity protest that defines large-scale initiatives and collectivism including riots, and general strikes, as well as political demonstrations as the states, fight to acquire economic and social liberalization. More specifically, the region has seen over one hundred and forty-six cases of austerity protest in the world since 1990s. One of the most significant manifestations of such movements is the reformation of Zapatista in Mexico in 2012 in response to a situation in Mexico in which the people of this country were dispossessed leading to occurrence of structural inequality (Porsanger, 2014, p. 27).
According to Davis, Hiller, James, Lloyd, Nasca, and Taylor (2017), anti-colonialism is a significantly relevant concept in 21st century. The author demonstrates that different organizations, groups, and movements are concerned with genuine establishment of global justice, and anti-colonial is a common concept in the contemporary world as individuals seek university. For example, the members of African Union endorse the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights in 1981 affirm their pledge to intensify their cooperation and coordination with the rest of the globe to achieve better living standards for the Africans and promote international conformity to UDHR and United Nation (Davis et al., 2017, p. 398). Anti-colonialists, especially, from the Third words countries. There has been a considerable spurt of recognition, spread, deepening of the international human right since 2000s. Specifically, movements for political and social justice have increasingly adopted the language of human rights framing issue such finance, global trade and access to pharmaceutical as matters of human rights (Davis et al., 2017, p. 398). Therefore, human right began to become universality respected, not by the governments, but those whose rights were protected. Further, a global human right movement started growing in 2000s focused on discovering the power of moral pressure changing even the most repressive and entrenched regimes having been made up of institutions such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch and others. Further, the movement further consisted of a trade union in Poland, intellectuals in the Soviet Union, employment youth in slums of Soweto in South Africa and students in Tiananmen Square in China as well as black and white fighting for their civil rights (Davis et al., 2017, p. 398). From the activities of these organizations, international community realized the power human rights had and its ability to free people from torture, hopelessness, hunger and even death. Since the objectives of the group’s engagements were to promote human welfare, it is indisputable that no idea was perceived as more fundament in supporting anti-colonialism and equal social justice than international human rights. As such, the universality of global justice movements which primarily challenges neo-liberal imperialism is a clear indication of the relevance and importance of anti-colonialism in post-colonialism (Davis et al., 2017, p. 398). The strategies are critical for empowers the indigenous movements to frame their interests, communal and universal terms against 21st-century colonialism. For instance, the indigenous movement in North American is part of the strategic aim, to strengthen the fight against liberal colonialism. The contemporary anti-colonialism movement is value-oriented and is embodied in specific claims that are meant to stop post-colonialism.
Indeed, anti-colonialism and relevant in the post-colonial age. When the First World War ended, numerous nations continued to d to increase their dominance over the developing countries across the world. As an outcome, countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin American started experiencing pressure as a result of control that ensued. As a result, indigenous people and colonized countries have been in the forefront of analyzing and mobilizing effort against neoliberal capitalism emphasizing cessation of commoditization of product and trade. Indigenous people from countries in Africa, Latin America and Asia have been engaging in political movements in an attempt to firs against imperialism they continually experience. Their self-determination and struggle for decolonization are a clear indication of existence of anti-colonial effort to attain genuine autonomy. Anti-colonialists share information and available resources to assist other communities and groups to collaborate with one another and protect their liberation. Effort in the global south that started in 2014 creating activities across the regions of Africa, Latin America, and Asia consisting of informal sectors workers, women, landless individuals, indigenous people, slum-dwellers, marginalized youths, and peasants. Anti-colonial nationalism in Africa and Asian experienced fundamental transformation carried out by native cities in an attempt to mobilize populations into the nationalists which confirms the relevance of anti-colonialism in the postcolonial era. The groups have since their formation been fighting post-colonial development project that focused on national capitalism.
Choudry, A., Majavu, M. and Wood, L., 2013. Struggles, strategies and analysis of anti-colonial and postcolonial social movements. Interface, 5(1), pp.1-10.
Davis, L., Hiller, C., James, C., Lloyd, K., Nasca, T. and Taylor, S., 2017. Complicated pathways: settler Canadians learning to re/frame themselves and their relationships with Indigenous peoples. Settler Colonial Studies, 7(4), pp.398-414.
Farred, G., 2014. A thriving postcolonialism: toward an anti-postcolonial discourse. Nepantla: Views from South, 2(2), pp.229-246.
Kapoor, D., 2013. Trans-local Rural Solidairty and an Anticolonial Politics of Place: Contesting Colonial Capital and Neoliberal State in India. Interface: A Journal for and About Social Movements, 5(1), pp.14-39.
Porsanger, J., 2014. An essay about indigenous methodology. Nordlit, 8(1), pp.105-120.