Terrorisms have been generally understood by many as the use of intimidation, violence and unlawful act by a person or a group of individuals in pursuit of some political interest. Several countries around the world have been fighting terrorism over the years with different groups and individual with such motives emerging year in year out from different parts of the world.
Some of the deadliest terrorist group in the world include Boko Haram, Basing our discussion on the American and terrorism, the paper will try to understand History of terrorism in America, War against Terrorism and it's political, economic and social implication if any experienced so far in the fight against terrorism (Jeremy Shapiro p.34).
Despite the fact that the discussions relating to terrorism take a new direction century after the other, this does not mean that it is a new form of violence in the world. Different groups and individuals have been using such unlawful tactics to express their grievances from time immemorial. Is recorded in history that the first activity similar to terrorism took place around 2000 years back when Jewish had problems with their financial system of that time, though that was not categorized as terrorism kind of activity.
According to the research, the first case that can be categorized as the terrorist attack in the American history took place in the year 1622. In this instance Powhatan Native who was am American attacked Jamestown colony where it is believed that approximately 30% of the people present at that particular time lost their lives through the attack.
Though there were many groups who were not satisfied with the way things were running during the old American set up, the first kind like terrorist groups identifies as the KKK ( Ku Klux Klan) was formed in the year 1867. In its initial form, it appeared to be a non – violent group with is the leader being former Confederate general Nathan Bedford Forrest.
However, the group changed its course around 1868 and engaged itself in many unlawful actions such as beating up, maundering and intimidations generally to both the white and black voters who supported Republican Party in those days (Rohan," Gunaratna p.44).
Therefore, it is indicated that, through such actions, the group was able to shape and influence the outcome of votes and election in general. After this period, the federal American government started a thorough crackdown on the KKK group. Through this, the organization was forced to disband and terminates its activities as most of its members were arrested and charged with murder and other unlawful actions.
However that was the beginning, after the end of KKK, in the year 1872, it emerged another threat posing terrorist group identified as the anarchist. This was one of the oldest well-established of an illegal group since it used most of the dangerous weapons some of which are known by many in the modern battlefield (US Department of Justice p.19). The group attacked America by bombing haymakers squire in around 1886, where hundreds of occupants perished and properties worth thousands of dollars were destroyed. The anarchist terrorist group continued with its actions until around the year 1927 a time when two Italian men were executed. They were charged with murder involving robbery and violence, assaults sexual harassments among other unlawful actions (Solomon " Hussein p.118).
During this era of KKK and anarchist terrorism, several cases of murder occurred among them being the emotional murder of President McKinley in the year 1901. In addition, a series of mall bombing were experienced in which government officials were the main targets for this terrorist that show the American attorney general miss death narrowly in the year 1919. Immediately after this instance, following a street wall bombing that took place a year later and was responsible for deaths of more than 30 Americans.
Shortly after these actions, the then American attorney general ordered a thorough search of the notorious immigrant's communities commonly known as ‘Palmer Raids’. The move contributed to the arrest, deAtaining, imprisonment and deporting of thousands of illegal migrants wherein extreme circumstances some were sentenced to death penalty depending on a magnitude of the charges.
After that tough crackdown, the anarchist group exited out of America through its action did not in any way influence the actions that were taken against Palmer. However, the street wall bombing and other less destructive attacks were experiences in several places in America even after the exit of the major groups through such action came with little destruction and were manageable (Tom p.37).
The United States of America led war against terrorism has been one of the defining features of the former president George W. Bush. However, these issues of terrorism in America seems to still to be one of the fundamental issues that form the platform of many discussions between America and Asian countries over the long period of time.
Therefore, a clear in the mind of many that, the United States never asked for any war by itself but the continued threats that these terrorist groups pose on their political and economic growth, makes is necessary for all incoming presidents vow to deal with it amicably. The time George Bush came into power after a highly contested election, the country was having fresh memories of more than five-decade cold war and was optimistic to have a long period of peaceful America. This was so since their main rival the Soviet Union had already vanished, the group was the only organization he posed such terrible threat to the national security of the American’s.
To deal with terrorism, the United States was first to take into accounts the verse geographical challenges it has compared to where some of this terrorist action were emerging from especially from Asia. In that connection, the administration re-examines its effectiveness in fighting terrorism while putting into consideration four points.
The first is, the logic of the government combines the American global importance, buy articulating some of the achievements made in relation to fighting terrorist organizations. The second factor is examining theoretical and practical consequences that may arise in regard to policy change concerning war over terrorism. Third, is to evaluate how America has performed so far in matters of war against terrorism. Lastly, the American long-term effects that may be brought about by continuous confrontation with these unlawful organizations.
After the cold war, the American’s peace initiative that was fronted by its administration seemed to have brought some good fruits though temporarily till late 19th century. Though to the authority it was clear in the mind several government officials that the most notorious al Qaeda groups were reorganizing its troops for an attack, the administration did not anticipate that the target was American embassies.
The group spread its machinery to over 60 countries around the world in preparation for attacks on American based embassies in the respective countries. However, even after the deadliest attacks on the American officials within East Africa region, the American policies were essentially concentrated in dealing with interstates problem and wrangles such as those between Israel and Palestine’s and not on specific groups.
Since America was keen to preserve its supremacy position in global position while drawing its engagements policy against terrorism the countries in question were involved in one way or another to avoided state conflict while maintaining its supreme power. To achieve that, the George W. Bush administration ensured that these points were put into consideration.
First was to transform the America defense troops into the international body that can work effectively with all other armed forces around the world. The reason was to allow quick response in case of an attack in the global operations where American’s resided specifically where terrorist were the main threat. The administration took the initiative to engage other willing countries to partner with them in evasion of nuclear weapons that are mostly used by these terrorist groups within their boundaries and also restrict any movement of such weapons without proper regulation in place.
The attack that happened in September in the year 2001 (9/11) was the worse to ever be experienced in the recent past since the time of Pearl Hobor. Different from the case of Pearl where the American forces were involved, the 9/11 Washington and New York attack was directed primarily towards American civilians in one of the highly populated cities in America. The magnitude of the attack was so severe since the terrorist used such deadly weapons that were rarely expected to be in the hands of civilians. The most shocking was that the incident occurred in front of hundreds of audience and unexpected to many as peace was regaining its roots after the long cold war battle.
The 9/11 attack in Washington and New York raised the question whether the George Bush administration and clear policies that could actually protect its civilians from such deadly terrorist actions. However, the incident made the initiative of Bush administration in regard to the war against terrorism to attract a lot of attention from the international community.
In examining success and failure on the part of American administration on a war against terrorism. There are some issues one need to be taken into account. First is to understand the magnitude of the terrorist threats and finding the best way to deal with it. Second is to use the relevant strategies to make sure you the group is denied access to weapons and other resources that facilitate their attacks. Developing a coordinate program with all security agents that will help in understanding g the movements of the enemy and intern enabling the troops to defeat them.
Taking into account the first point is that, being able to correctly estimate the nature of the threat posed by the terrorist, is very fundamental steps that will give the troops assigned that mission to have a clear victory (Jeremy " Shapiro p.32). This is true simply because the nature of threat will give an insight of what kind of weapons such terrorist would be having. Owing to the second point is that if the nature of threat cannot be correctly weighed from the military point of view, then the best option is to make, is to deny the enemy any access to the weapon (Kenneth and Elisa p.23). Without any weapon, the group will definitely feel inferior and will not be able to engage in any attack. The other thing is that all security resources available should be geared towards accomplishing one mission, to wipe away terrorism whose actions threaten the stability of the Americans.
Although in mind of many American nationalists will categorize the presidency of Bush as one defined with a fight against terrorism. The fact is, George W. Bush administration was faced with two major tasks, and one is to protect the American citizens against terror attacks and maintaining the supremacy of America as a state globally.
To maintain supremacy the country could not afford to concentrate only on the fight against terrorism. Other issues ought to be put into consideration, such as economic growth, political and social matters. Despite the fact America is the reading powerhouse, to completely win the war against terrorism it must align its policies to match those of countries that are experiencing similar terrorist threats. Though not completely viewed as the terrorist mission, America has helped in bringing normalcy in different parts of the world.
For instance, the invasion of Iraq in the year 2003 against the then leader who worked closely with the terrorist group of al Qaeda Sadam Hussein was brought down, years later under the leadership of Barrack Obama the notorious leader of the al Qaeda group Osama Bin Laden was killed. In addition to that, the American government is working closely with Afghanistan nationalist to reduce or the finish the attacks that are mostly engineered by the Taliban group.
Jeremy, Shapiro, “Detention of Terrorism Suspects in Britain and France,” written testimony before the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe, July 15, 2008 print.
Kenneth Anderson and Elisa Massimino, “The Cost of Confusion: Resolving Ambiguities in Detainee Treatment”, Stanley Foundation, 2007 print
Rohan, Gunaratna, “Strategic Counter-Terrorism; Getting Ahead of Terrorism;” Part II: The Ideological Response,” Jebsen Center for Counter-Terrorism Studies, Research Briefing Series 2, no. 2, 2007 print.
Solomon, Hussein. "Responding to Terror: An Assessment of US Counter-Terrorism Strategies in Africa." Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism in Africa, 2015, pp. 117-127.
Tom J. U.S. “a Battlefield, Solicitor General Tells Judges,” Washington Post, July 20, 2005 Website.
U.S. Department of Justice, “Legal Authorities Supporting the Activities of the National Security Agency Described by the President,” January 19, 2006 website. Available at: tp://www.usdoj.gov/opa/whitepaperonnsalegalauthorities.pdf.