The Legacy of Fascism on the Politics of Italy and Germany

Politics and the Legacy of WWII

Politics is core factor in the governance of the country. Politicians are the law makers in the country and through execution of their mandate, they leave legacies behind which are used as examples by the generations and generations. Italian fascism and German Nazism triggered the world war, displacement of people, and loss of life, racism and the destruction of the Jewish social virtues in the Central Europe. The World War II (WWII) was the most catastrophic and devastating conflict of the human history (Blattman 247). Because of it is complexity and size, this battle has strong political, economical, and social repercussions both to the global model both to the future of the single nation that participated in the conflict. This was the case of Germany and Italy which were the core protagonist of the WWII. Indeed, their foreign rules and eventually their stance in the issues critically impacted the positions of Italy and Germany in the post world war by undermining their authority and influence at the international tier (Blattman 248). Therefore, to explain the Fascist and Nazism foreign policies shaped the future of Italy and Germany, the essay analyses the main steps as well illustrating the most significant turning terminals concerning Italians and Germans participation to the World War II.

The Importance of Addressing WWII Problems

To win the peace it is important to tackle the problems which are associated with the success of the German and Italy in the World War II. This topic attracted the attention of many authors who passionately devoted their effort towards understanding the cause of democracy and the real expression of their ideas in which the legacy of the Fascism and Nazism are addressed. Regardless of the various existing philosophies and positions, and the general diversification in emphasis, the researchers have come to the multiple identical conclusions (Bellows and Miguel 1157). The main conspicuous among these scholars is that the WWII convections are not imaginable if the contributions of the Fascism and Nazism are not eliminated with the determination and intelligence (Bellows and Miguel 1155). The conflicting issues with the current cataclysm relies with the shoulders of the multiple items in the Axis camp hence making saving the world from the confusion about the battle guilt which emanated about one century ago. Notably, the United Nations is responsible for future development of the international relations as the mankind keep on evolving.

The Emergence of Fascist International Rules

The emergence of the Fascist international rules articulates into dual phases. The first stage was during 1922- 1929 when Mussolini focused on the low profile of the world policy. Prudence and moderation wee the core factors for Italy to get back European Great power trust after the World War II. Italy, reassured European chancelleries and its aims to honour peace treaties to claw back and redeem itself back to power at the European level (Canetti and Lindner 90). Besides, prudence and moderation were directed towards gaining global legitimacy of the Fascism. Moreover, the low profile international regulations were justified by the demand for emphasizing on the Italian political energy on the remedies on the internal issues and the integration of the newborn regimes. These happenings changed temporarily the Mussolini’s attention from the foreign matters (Canetti and Lindner 91). However, Mussolini ultimate aim was to enhance Italy’s influence in the world as to consolidate the nations among the European Great Powers. To this function, Italy emphasized on three main roles.

Mussolini's Foreign Policies

First, Mussolini bargained for the stable state with the UK. Mussolini efforts bear positive fruits and the two nations were connected by the everlasting friendship. Particularly, the United Kingdom considered Italy to represent a hurdle both to the danger of European Communism and French hegemony. Further, the relationship between the two countries increased considerably when Chamberlin became the minister for the Foreign Matters in 1924 (Voth 1339). Second, Italy focused at gradually brining issues of the boundary losses which it suffered as result of the World War II peace Treaty. Moreover, Italy’s foreign policy was influenced by the hints of the Imperialism as the state never stopped to focus at Africa as the location where to direct its powers to become great power. Third, Italy was against the rise of Germany as a colony as perceived it as an obstacle to its national security. Since the above three main aspects made the Fascist system appear as the continuation of the post Unitarian liberal tradition (Voth 1340). The Mussolini’s international rules were supported by the Italian diplomacy. However, regardless of the cooperation regime, the Italian diplomacy remained immune to the contamination of the Fascist differences.

The Second Stage of Fascist International Rules

The Fascist international rules entered then second stage in 1929 when Dino Grandy became the minister of the Foreign Affairs. This was a remarkable terminal for the Fascist regime prudence and moderation rejection and was substituted by the rule of the determinant weight (Sundquist). This last phase dwells on the concept that although Italy was inferior from the military perception, it is presence in the European case had become significant. Mr., Grandy was then convinced that Italy could act as an arbiter of the status quo in the Europe which was the national stable relying on its stances and actions. Further, Mr. Grandy advocated for the great pacifism in Italy’s global relations to successfully implement its foreign policy. Specifically, he assumes that peace was a vital condition to enable Italy play the responsibility of an arbiter in the European incidence since the post war would have caused the line up with the single portion thus hindering the equilibrium of power and authority in the region (Sundquist). Considerably, the rationale behind the pragmatic international standards was to acquire the opportunities for benefits that were extended to Italy which came from its competitors. Notably, the determinants of the policy weight was pushed to examine and indicated to be successful during that event which was held in London Conference in 1930 where Italy realized the parity in power with France (Sundquist). Ultimately, in this cycle, Italian foreign rules were segregated from the Fascist ideology.

Mussolini Versus Grandi: The Shift in Foreign Policy

Grandi was overthrown by the Mussolini in 1930 and assumes the role of the foreign affairs himself regardless of the achievements made the Grandi in his reign as the minister. Mussolini made this decision because of the two main reasons. First, Grandi’s proposal could only have been achieved in the long term assumptions while Mussolini focused at integration of the powers rapidly. Furthermore, Mussolini differed with Grandi’s pacifism and developmentally commenced to view him as the enemy to the reputations of his regime. Second, Mussolini perceives Grandi as the threat to his leadership. Admittedly, the succession did adjust the features of the Italian intentional policy during that cycle. Indeed, the Grandi’s policy was carried by Mussolini with weight determination to enhance the Italy’s impact in the context of the European (Mayhew). To this reason, Mussolini presented the four – powers pact project to the Germany, UK, and France. This drafted covenant seek at promoting harmony and cooperation for the peaceful dispute settlement which was the major concern of the UK and France as well as restructuring the peace treaties which was the major aim of Germany and Italy(Mayhew). In this case, Italy could assume a great role, stabilizing of the attention of the four participating powers while expounding the Italian effect in the European system of nations. However, the plan failed because of the laxity of the German to accept the parity with France.

The Fascist Legacy and the Importance of Democracy

During the New York era, Herbert Mathews warned the world against the Fascism by explaining its meaning and the reasons behind it failures. Herbet assert that the benefits of the Fascism need close monitoring and observed carefully as they have intimately existed via a long duration. It commences inevitably with the traditional assessment of the wider history of the march on the Rome, then an explanation of the evolution of the dictatorship and its laws. By illumination of the heyday of the pathetic glory of Fascist, Herbert closed the curtain on the fallacious advantage of the current regime (Fouka and Voth). Admittedly, Fascism dragged Italy on the torment of fiery furnace and that solution to this scenarios demands global democracy.

The Italian Legacy and the Role of Historians

The facts about the legacy of the fascism in Italy are explained in detail by the Harvard professors George Piana and Gaetano who are the citizens of America by adoption. More importantly, their arguments are based on the contemporary events and grounded on the recent Italian history. Full of impulses, passionate, and polemical, the two historians retains the degree of poise which is accounted by their sincere and profound belief in the correctness of their cause. Fascisms are blamed for their incompetence of addressing the issues of the Italians (Fontana, Nannicini and Tabellini).Therefore, concerning the future of the Italian people and state, George Piana and Gaetano argue against Fascist propounded in the political unpreparedness of the democracy in Italy and believing that the current regime will supersede the Fascism and will no longer consider Monarchy.

The Role of Vatican in Fascist Legacies

The Italian nationals are not absolved with their portion of the roles in the rise of the Mussolini, but superior individuals and groups in America and England. Notably, there will be no historians who will be able to give full explanation of the Fascist legacies in the global matters in absence of the friendly cooperation between the Fascist dictatorship and Vatican (Costalli and Ruggeri 49). After addressing the complexity of the issues of re- education, George Piana and Gaetano suggest multiple peace terms to restore the defeated Italy which include; punishment of the Fascist criminals by the Italians, the ordinary citizens should be not be accountable for the Fascist mistakes, reparations for looting and material damage should be created in labor form, integration of the Dodecanese Island with Greece and administering of the Albania by world commission.

The Economic Consequences of Nazism

The legacy of the Nazism by Frank who is an economist from Czechosloval is a Don at American institutions of higher learning is an author of the book ‘The Economic of Force’. Similar to its predecessor, the article explains the influence of the Nazi economy on the occupied countries, but it is latest in material and conception. Not mainly on an economic analysis, the note is fundamentally addressing the issues of the postwar coming from Nazi successes (Balcells 422). In 15 chapters, Frank explains almost every aspect and phase of the social and economic consequences of the German totalitarianism. The topics of the background of the Nazi fateful self efficacy, industrial planning, changes in social systems, substitute labor, uprooted industries, the command economy, super inflation, and competition of the Nazi officers, business control, and mandatory super cartels are specifically instructive. By his assertions, Frank belongs to the school of promoting international and national planning, without regardless of making all relations with the idea of private companies.

Addressing the Fallout of Nazism

Private entities can survive with the support of the government systems. Regarding the aftermath of the Nazism, Frank argues eloquently against the believe that Nazism symbolizes the technique of the useful planning. Notably, Nazi economy involves an expropriation of the particular primary concepts of the organized structure and is perverted and perverse the planned system which seeks to be restored to its initial social mission (Avdeenko and Siedler). By the opinion of several economists, Nazi war economy is completed destroyed and is spoliatory model of an arbitrary militaristic system of administration which approaches its inevitable decline. Nevertheless, suggest that to address the economical issues in Germany requires the economic experts to review Nazi system by both waging the economic battle and turning the evil actions of the dictatorship into the peace engines.

The Impact of German Imperialism

Hitlerism is the latest form of the Pan – Germanism and the real economic, cultural force, political aspects behind the German imperialism. German imperialist always praise the pan – German plans for the Germany’s private gains and geographical location. Approximately 200, 000 citizens depend on the Nazi upper crust (Acharya, Blackwell and Sen).The elimination of the central Nazi enterprises, peasant trust, labor front, and Gestapo ensure full destruction of the Nazi party tool. The thousands of the file and rank Nazis remains must be divided, denied right to vote, kept under the strict surveillance, and restricted from exercising particular professions (Acharya, Blackwell and Sen). No projects of can be developed by heavy industry representatives , the army , the aristocrats and Junkers , the universities , cultural institutions and banks which were operational since 1933. The second measure to liquidate Pan German would consist of the greater purge which is a full dissolution of the police troops and corps officers and expropriation of the great landholding in Germany and Prussia, nationalization of the main industries, eliminations of the nationalist and Nazi, and restructuring of the law courts and schools, and the scholars who propagandized the Hitler actions. These measures would impact million people (Acharya, Blackwell and Sen). Further, the criminal records should be discarded physically and other rendered harmless. Ultimately, Nazism aimed at not destroying Germany, but to make the Europe region operate normally and does not affect the world.


In summary, analyzing the main features of the Nazism and Fascist legacies and the major stages of the evolution was a significant aspect towards understanding why Italy and German participated in the World War II. Although the initial stage of the Mussolini regime overtook the Hitler’s trial to disrupt the peace and power balance in the European region. The essay highlights how Italy experienced tough peace conditions than Germany while they were considering the long term implications of the peace Treaty. Finally, the article explains how Fascist international policy model affected critically the Italy’s reputation during the post war global relations even after the decline of the regime by neutralizing its impact and making it appear unfair, disloyal, and unreliable country.

Works Cited

Acharya, A., Blackwell, M., and Sen, M. Explaining attitudes from behavior: A cognitive dissonance approach, 2015. Retrieved from < >

Avdeenko, A. and Siedler, T. Intergenerational correlations of extreme right-wing party preferences and attitudes toward immigration, 2016. The Scandinavian Journal of Economics.

Balcells, L. Continuation of politics by two means: Direct and indirect violence in civil war. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 55(3) 2011:397-422.

Bellows, J. and Miguel, E. War and local collective action in Germany. Journal of Public Economics, 93(11), 2014:1144-1157.

Blattman, C.  From violence to voting: War and political participation in Italy. American Political Science Review, 103(02), 2013: 231-247.

Canetti, D. and Lindner, M. . . Exposure to political violence and political behavior. Psychology of Change: Life Contexts, Experiences, and Identities, ed. Katherine Reynolds and Nyla Branscombe. New York: Psychology Press, 2015:77-95.

Costalli, S. and Ruggeri, A.  Forging political entrepreneurs: Civil war effects on post conflict politics in Italy. Political Geography, 44, 2015:40-49.

Fontana, N., Nannicini, T., and Tabellini, G. Historical roots of Political extremism: The effects of Nazi occupation of Italy. Boccioni University, IGIER working paper. 6, 2016

Fouka, V. and Voth, H.-J. . Reprisals remembered: German-Greek conflict and car sales during the Euro crisis. Harvard Press, 2013.

Mayhew, D.R. Electoral realignments: A critique of an American genre. Yale University Press, 2014.

Sundquist, J. L. Dynamics of the party system: Alignment and realignment of political parties in the United States. Brookings Institution Press, 2011.

Voth, H.-J. (. Persecution perpetuated: the medieval origins of anti Semitic violence in Nazi Germany. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 127(3), 2012:1339-1392.

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