Waste Technologies Inc.

3.0 Literature Review 4 4.0 Research Questions 1.0 Introduction 3 2.0 Research Topic 3 3.0 Literature Review 4 4.0 Research Questions 6 4.1 Research Hypothesis 7 5.0 Research Design 7 5.2 Weaknesses 8 5.3 Ethical Considerations 9 6.1 Interviews 9 6.2 Questionnaires 8 6.0 Methodology 9 7.0 Analysis and Interpretation 10 8.0 Findings Presentation 12 8.1 Public Involvement 12 8.2 Company Improvements 13 9.0 Conclusion 13 10.0 References Introduction 15 1.0
Waste disposal has sparked a worldwide debate, with increased focus on the many methods by which solid waste, whether organic or inorganic can be disposed of safely without harming people and by extension the environment.  The establishment of a waste Incinerator in East Liverpool, Ohio by Waste Technologies Industry has been a big cause of concern, with authorities such as the U.S Environmental Protection Agency making various interventions to solve the problem. 
 The issue of Waste Technologies Industry Inc. concerning their establishment of a waste incinerator in the floodplain of the Ohio River in East Liverpool, Ohio triggered my thoughts on the possibility of waste incineration facilities being situated near people’s residence.  I find a topic on waste incineration very interesting because it has received both positive and negative acceptance by societies, environmental safety organizations, and authorities. Moreover, some of these environmental stakeholders have highlighted some possible health challenges posed by waste incineration on the surrounding population. To be more specific, I chose to research on the possible health challenges that the entire process poses to human beings living in the areas surrounding waste incineration facilities.
This study aims at establishing and exploring the process of waste incineration in Ohio and the possible health outcomes of the residents surrounding the incineration site. As such, the study will also look into the possible legal measures which have been taken by different bodies and organizations to rescue the residents of East Liverpool, Ohio. It will also propose some measures which could be put in place so as to help solve the health issues in the area. 

2.0 Research Topic
Risk Assessment of Waste Incineration by Waste Technologies Industries and the Associated Health Effects on the People in East Liverpool, Ohio.
In 2015, EPA presented a 20-page document which detailed the possible criminal and civil penalties which the incinerator could face for its continued operation. According to EPA, the incinerator exposes the residents living nearby to chemicals which can cause cancer, miscarriages and possible early deaths. Waste incineration is one of the commonly used methods to get rid of solid waste in the world. In this method, the waste treatment process involves a high combustion of the organic components in waste through a process known as the thermal treatment (Dyke, Foan & Fiedler, 2016).
Furthermore, findings and recommendations from this research will help environmental agencies such as the Ohio Department of Environmental Services and the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency in solving some of the underlying problems caused by waste incineration facilities. Moreover, it will provide insights into the society and health stakeholders on the types of dangers exposed to people and help environmental stakeholders in making decisions concerning the establishment of organic waste management systems all over the country. In addition, this research will inform the development of better methods of waste management or even improvement of incinerators to reduce or totally get rid of the health challenges that it poses to humans.  
3.0 Literature Review
The adoption of waste incineration as a method of solid waste management was adopted in the United States in 2006 after many years of debate and modification of the idea to ensure that it provided a better alternative in the disposal of solid waste. The necessary authorities skeptically adopted the idea because they feared that it could expose human beings and the environment to hazardous substances and consequently affect them. As a result, household and farm waste were allowed to be incinerated, although only in small quantities and as long as it did not affect other.  Subsequently, some states such as Wisconsin, New York, and Minnesota have made certain rules and regulations to regulate incineration of waste based on the level of health threat that the exercise poses (Dyke, Foan & Fiedler, 2016).
The process of incineration produces flue gas which is released to the atmospheres.  Although some incinerators have adopted the use of flue gas cleaning system, others still release the gas into the atmosphere without cleaning it.  Flue gas contains many pollution components such as particles, dioxins, furans, and Sulphur (IV) oxide, which are harmful to human body. Moreover, some flue gas emissions contain heavy metals such as mercury and lead and when emitted into the atmosphere, they have numerous health effects on the human body.
 A lot of studies have been done on the possible effects of Flue gas emissions on the biodiversity and the various ways through which these substances get into the human body. For instance, Czuczwa and Hites in their research found out that dioxins and furans which are a product of incineration’s heat system get indirectly to the human body system through the food chain such as animal products which contain fat, milk and meat.  Although they may take longer to get into the human body, their accumulation may eventually bring bad health effects (Czuczwa & Hites, 2014).  Dioxins and furans cause cancer to human beings while also affecting the process of growth and development human body and its systems. People living in different areas have different body concentrations of furans and dioxins and although there are no certain safe levels of these substances, their high presence in human body makes it susceptible to cancer (Cunliffe & Williams, 2009).
Furthermore, flue gases have high concentrations of PCB’s. Although these substances are found in 209 different forms, the PCB 153 and 180 make the most frequent and yet dangerous forms.  These substances accumulate in water bodies and get to the human body through the fish food.  From a research conducted by Dyke, Foan & Fiedler on the effects of the PCB’s produced by incineration facilities on human body; they found out that the substances could be attributed to the lower weights of natal babies as well as high effects on the human immune system (Dyke, Foan & Fiedler, 2016). Researchers have been trying to establish the possible types of wastes whose incinerations emits poisonous lead into the atmosphere. Furthermore, Ferro industries, as well as paint manufacturers, are the leading sources of lead in the environment, contributing about 21% of the total poisonous lead found in the environment today (Nriagu, 2011).  The waste incinerator established by Waste Technologies Industry Inc. in the floodplain of the Ohio River in East Liverpool deals with some paint industry’s waste such as that produced by Creative paints in Dublin and the Kiem Lumber company (Fischbein, 2003). Wastes from these companies pose a great threat to human health after they have been incinerated.
4.0 Research Questions
This research will be based on two fundamental questions which it will need to answer upon completion.  These question include:
What is the relationship between the types of ailments (lung cancer) suffered by the residents of Liverpool, Ohio in the floodplain of the Ohio River and the emission of flue gases by the Waste Technologies Inc.’s incinerator.
Would it be necessary for any legal action to be taken in order to shut down the incineration activities by Waste Technologies Industries, Inc. in Ohio, Liverpool
The reason why have decided to use these two research questions is that they are the fundamental concerns raised by the emission of the flue gases from the incineration machine as well as others within the County of Columbiana and Ohio state in general. Moreover, these questions address the issues of human-health fully in relation to the use of incineration as a method of dealing with solid organic waste.
The first question seeks to identify the specific problems caused by the emission of flue gases while the second question provides for conclusions and recommendations on how to deal with the problem, based on the recent developments by authorities and stakeholders in the environment sector. 
By looking at the research questions, a lot can be said concerning the research topic because they both seek answers on the hazardous threat posed to the residents of the floodplain of the Ohio River in East Liverpool by flue gas emissions from the incinerator.
4.1 Research Hypothesis
The research will seek to test the following hypotheses, in order to ascertain their level or how untrue they are.
There is a significant relationship between the presence of the incinerator established by Waste Technologies Industry Inc. and the health of the people living in the floodplain of the Ohio River in East Liverpool.
Legal measures will correct the situation in East Liverpool, Ohio thus ensuring environmental justice is achieved.
5.0 Research Design
This will focus on the case study design. This design aims to research on a specific problem in the society. In most cases, it is used to reduce the scope of the field of study if the problem under research is extensive. In this case, the study will focus on the operations in WTI and the health effects it has had on the residents in Ohio.
The research design is appropriate to the study since it focuses on only one issue in a specific area. Thus the research design will ensure that there is thorough analysis of any piece of information available. More so, the study focuses on the WTI issue of polluting the environment which leads to development of negative health effects on the residents of Ohio (Nriagu, 2011). As such, the research problem is not a representation of a whole which makes the design suitable to the specific issue.
5.1 Research Objectives
To find out the extent of health-related problems on the residents of East Liverpool.
To assess matters concerning the ownership and operational control of WTI and evaluate if their permit of hazardous waste is valid.
To establish EPA’s ability to guarantee the environmental safety and human health during WTI’s operation in the area.
Evaluating the government bodies and organizations liable for WTI’s permits.
To identify possible solutions and measures to correct the health state of the residents of Eastern Ohio.
To identify possible future prevention measures of such occurrences.
5.2 Strengths
Ensures thorough analysis, thus, total understanding of the issue at hand.
It enables the researchers rely on several sources and adapt a variety of methodologies during their investigation.
It is able to compliment the literary sources already existing about the problem in question.
It is focused on in-depth detail provision thus efficient
5.3 Weaknesses
It gives too much exposure to the researcher and study which could bias the interpretations of the findings.
It does not represent a larger problem since it focuses on the major problem.
5.3 Ethical Considerations
The main ethical consideration in this case is to ensure that the anonymity and confidentiality of the participants is upheld.
To ensure that the researchers do not use the participants’ personal information for personal gain.
6.0 Methodology
6.1 Interviews
The study used the interview technique to obtain data from the members. The interviewers will able to obtain data related to the age of the residents in the area. Among the total population, the interview aims at establishing the number of people who develop health-related problems associated with the by-products of WTI. The study will obtain data on the total income of the residents in order to establish their ability to acquire health care services. The participants’ personal opinion about the operations will also be collected (Czuczwa & Hites, 2014).
More so, the interviews will interview the officials of the company and obtain the necessary documentation, especially those associated with the permits.
Written reports will also be obtained from the officials of EPA and WPI, Ohio Health Department and the Attorney General.
6.2 Questionnaires
Both closed and open-ended questionnaires will be used during the study. The questionnaires are meant to collect data related to the variation and prevalence in the opinions of the participants concerning waste public involvement and waste management issues. In the selection of the respondents, a random stratified sample was used in order to ensure maximum achievement of variation (Dyke, Foan & Fiedler, 2016).
The questionnaires will also collected a lot of information on the interests of different organizations in waste management policy and practice.
There was a total of 365 questionnaires which were distributed among the participants. There were also 60 organizations which participated.
7.0 Analysis and Interpretation
The Ohio region is undergoing a lot of pressure from the WTI Company. The residents of the area have developed a number of health effects such as cancer another deformities due to metals like mercury and toxic gases. The company has collaborated with other Environmental agencies such as EPA in the region in order to allow the operation of the comp any in the area. The government also played a big part in legalizing the setup of the company in the plains. This was especially during the reign of Bill Clinton and Gore as presidents of the State and EPA respectively (Czuczwa & Hites, 2014).
The income of the people in the region has generally gone down due to the increased cases of sickness and thus weakness. The people are also using the little amount of income they have to seek medical care thereby lack funds for other expenses. In a case of evacuation of the area, the residents of the area would not be able to move in case the air quality declined with regards to WTI operations. Most of the individuals in the area are children and the elderly. These two group are at high risk of being affected by diseases compared to the middle aged individuals.

Affiliation of participants (questionnaire).
Main groups Sample size (N = 60) Type of organisations No of participants (N = 60)
Citizen n = 17 Community action groups 7
Environmental campaign groups 10

Key stakeholder n = 17 Community engagement practitioners 3
Government agencies 3
Non-governmental organisations 4
Waste management companies 7

Local authority n = 26 Waste collection authorities 5
Waste disposal authorities 8
Unitary authorities 13

8.0 Presentation of Findings
8.1 Public Involvement
The research advocates for more public involvement in the processes of policy-making and establishment of waste management companies. This involvement will enable the majority to have a voice to represent their general view in matters which are associated with the conservation of the environment in the community. As such, the government and the EPA committed huge crimes in ignoring the people’s opinions for personal gain at the expense of the people’s health (Dyke, Foan & Fiedler, 2016). The presidents of the state and that of EPA are put in place to protect the rights of the people but in this case, they were manipulating the people and creating more trouble in the community.
As a result, the research proposes that the management of EPA be changed so that a new management which would be more concerned with the well-being of the individuals can be put in place. The government should also consider the people’s opinions with regards to the operation of the company in the region (Czuczwa & Hites, 2014).
8.2 Improvements in the Company
Instead of closing down the company, the people propose that the operations of the company should be improved through the use of the available technology. The technology to be applied should be able to ensure that the by-products of the company are not just released to the environment to pollute it (Nriagu, 2011). Instead, the by-products should be recycled and packed as gases to be used in other areas like sulphur can be used to make sulphur products in chemicals. More so, the gases should be cleaned and filtered before they are released to the environment. The operation of the company in this manner will be more beneficial to the community than when it is being used to cause health-related issues such as cancer to the residents (Dyke, Foan & Fiedler, 2016).

9.0 Conclusion
The research aims at establishing the problems related with the establishment of the Waste Technologies Industries in East Liverpool, Ohio. The community in the area has suffered in the hands of the company, the state, and the EPA. The by-products of the company are gases and metals like mercury which result in the development of health-related diseases like cancer. The population in the area comprises of a large number of the elderly and children who are quite vulnerable to the diseases and the conditions. The income of the residents is relatively low which makes it difficult for the residents to acquire medical health. In case the situation gets worse in the area, the residents would not be able to vacate due to their low income.
As such, the research proposes that the government put in place measures to help resolve the issue in the community. The measures to be applied will involve the increased involvement of members of the community and the public as a whole in the policy formulation and implementation in relation to waste management and environment conservation. The research also proposes that WTI should be renovated where more technology will be implemented in the operations of the company. As such, the company will be able to filter out toxic gases before releasing them to the environment. The toxic metals can also be recycled to be used in the chemical industries in the production of chemicals.


10.0 References
Cunliffe, A. M., & Williams, P. T. (2009). De-novo formation of dioxins and furans and the memory
effect in waste incineration flue gases. Waste Management, 29(2), 739-748.
Czuczwa, J. M., & Hites, R. A. (2014). Environmental fate of combustion-generated polychlorinated
dioxins and furans. Environmental science & technology, 18(6), 444-450.
Dyke, P. H., Foan, C., & Fiedler, H. (2016). PCB and PAH releases from power stations and waste
incineration processes in the US. Chemosphere, 50(4), 469-480.
Fischbein, W. T. (2003). Alternative Dispute Resolution in Hazardous Waste Siting: A Solution for Ohio
and East Liverpool. Ohio St. J. on Disp. Resol., 9, 399
Nriagu, J. O. (2011). A silent epidemic of environmental metal poisoning?. Environmental pollution,
50(1-2), 139-161.

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