According to the Atlantic, there are 4 million long-term unemployed people who have very little hope of seeking jobs when they are screened out by employers (Thompson). To have a consistent platform on the solutions for addressing the crisis, there is a need for a better understanding of the problems around unemployment. This article addresses some pertinent questions about jobs, accountability for providing employment opportunities, legal implications of being unemployed, and human predisposing factors for unemployment. The government has a role to create jobs for the people and partners with private and non-governmental organizations to achieve this by providing a conducive environment for business and investment. Government also achieves the goal of job creation by providing firms with incentives to invest and creating projects and programs that employ skilled personnel not currently on gainful employment. The role of government, therefore, is to provide jobs to the people as well as boost the economic development of a state. The government, on the other hand, creates jobs by allocating projects to corporations and cooperatives, leading to creation of jobs. For instance, rural electrification, which is responsible for creation of many jobs, is a project by the government that is often assigned to the cooperatives (Schwettmann 4). The rules/laws that exist regarding unemployment include those guiding access and eligibility for unemployment insurance to ensure access to basic support. The rules on unemployment insurance include eligibility for the involuntary unemployed and not those who lost their jobs from misconduct or voluntarily quit. The unemployment benefits also depend on the length of employment and prior wages with the requirement that the worker should have worked at least three months within the previous year before being laid off to be eligible (Isaacs 1).
The risk factors that predispose individuals to unemployment include long-term unemployment, which results in individuals having fewer contacts with the job market reducing information on job vacancies, reduced skill levels, sapped morale, and loss of confidence (Tuncay and Yildirim 484). Age also contributes to high rate of unemployment; older persons are more vulnerable to long-term unemployment because of changing work and skill-set requirement. Age bars old persons from competing for a lot of jobs. Other potential causes of unemployment include mental and physical disabilities that are associated with the elderly. Search effort, choosiness, and ability to compete for jobs also influence the occurrence of unemployment (Gottfries 12). Low search effort and choosiness on the jobs applied by individuals besides consideration of the pay offered predisposes many people to unemployment. Choosiness may arise from a generous unemployment benefit system reducing the incentives for workers to search for available jobs (Gottfries 13). Equally, a reduced ability to compete mainly due to lack of skills or mismatch of the workers skills with the skills demanded in the market increases chances of unemployment.
Lack of skills and skill mismatch can be addressed through three different ways. First, it is essential for the skills of the unemployed to be upgraded. Upgrading individual’s skills means that relevant skills are offered to that person; individuals are provided with skills relevant to the jobs in the market (Cedefop 20). This can be achieved through training and specifically targeting on the skills required by a specific employer. Attending employment internships also improve individual’s skills and prepare him for the job market. Second, it is important for the unemployed to be provided with career guidance. By informing as well as guiding job seekers on the path that connects their skills with labor market, demand plays a critical function in skill matching (Cedefop 45). Such targeted assistance not only eases high pressure on employment sectors experiencing skill shortages, but also identifies the skills of individuals that are important to the local economy. This can be achieved through establishing public-private collaborations. These collaborations assist employees experiencing the adverse effects of unemployment locate different jobs and link them to specific jobs. In addition, orientation assists with “school-to-work transition” (Cedefop 46). A great percentage of the unemployed persons in the USA constitute young graduates. New graduates find it hard to locate jobs either due to lack of skills or connections. Counselors in different orientation groups can help in relevant training, and as a result, increase the likelihood of new graduates getting jobs. Subsidizing work can also contribute significantly to the lowering of unemployment in the U.S. Subsidizing work providers with necessary financial incentives to acquaint themselves with the skills of persons with high possibility of not being hired. Such instrument handles with absence of information transparency between potential employees and employers, facilitates the development of skills in individuals. Subsidized work is associated with compensating employers for the expected productivity loss (Cedefop 53). Employers who receive subsidy provide individuals with adequate skills training that lead to possession of professional certificates.
The government is responsible for the creation of jobs for the people. Provision of incentives, proposal and allocation of projects and provision of conducive environment for economic activities by the government facilitates creation of jobs by corporations and other economic players. Factors such as age, lack of skills, mismatch of skills, selectivity of jobs, and poor pay contribute to unemployment in the U.S. These factors can be overcome upgrading skills of the unemployed, providing the unemployed with career guidance, and subsidizing companies.
Cedefop. “Tackling Unemployment While Addressing Skill Mismatch: Lessons from Policy and Practice in European Union Countries.” Cedefop Research Paper, no. 46, 2015. DOI: 10.2801/648140
Gottfries, Nils. Macroeconomics. Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.
Isaacs, Katelin. “Unemployment Insurance: Consequences of Changes in State Unemployment Compensation Laws.” Congressional Research Service. 2016.
Schwettmann, Jurgen. “The Role of Cooperatives in Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals.” International Labor Office, 2014. http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/documents/2014/coopsegm/Schwettmann.pdf. Accessed Nov. 17, 2017.
Thompson, Derek. “The Shame of America’s Long-Term Unemployment Crisis.” The Atlantic, February 6, 2014. https://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2014/02/the-shame-of-americas-long-term-unemployment-crisis/283655. Accessed Nov. 17, 2017.
Tuncay, Tarik, and Bugra Yildirim. “Factors Affecting the Psychological Distress among Unemployed and Re-Employed Individuals.” Career Development International, vol. 20, no. 5, 2015, pp. 482-502.