To look at the factors that influence brand loyalty in fashion consumers in 2020.

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In the midst of business philosophy and reality, there is still a space for brand loyalty as a significant source of sales. The revenue is generated by price increases, consumer reviews, a higher balance, lower operating costs, and increased revenues. The gap or reason regarding this research is mainly to look at the factors that are driving brand loyalty within fashion consumers in 2020. In the world of business, brand loyalty is critical and is recognized highly. Brand loyalty is always considered to be the primary essential constructs concerning conceptualizations to consumer brand equity. With the percentage of the brands going up, the market shares go up with the brand, also becoming profitable. Concerning the statement, the definition of brand loyalty can be considered to be an outcome arising from consumer’s behaviors, and the preferences of a person influence this. Similarly, it can be viewed as a consumer that repeats purchases originating from the preferred leading brand irrespective of how the prices of the competitors differ. With this, the consumer will not resort to the substitute brand since they will always have it in mind that the preferred brand is much superior to the competitor brands. The result of the study not only assisting in formulation customer’s policy retention appropriately, but it also helps in the market segment, which is much more than cost-effective. Brand loyalty can be considered to be a threat since the 2020 fashion consumers do change their style of fashion more rapidly, and this makes the consumers not to be brand loyal. The principal objective of the research is to look at the factors that are driving brand loyalty within fashion consumers in 2020. About purpose existence, the study will give numerous procedures as well as guidelines to assist in resolving problems that arise from the concerns deliberated. The obtained results to future learners as well as researchers regarding a similar topic.

Key terminologies: Brand experience, buying behavior, switch cost, and customer satisfaction.

INTRODUCTION

The fashion consumers in 2020 are considered to be the biggest market to be targeted for an organization. They pose the capacity if purchasing fashion items as well as keep in contact or follow existing fashion. Fashion is considered to be an industry that always evolves in changing industry and innovative, more so in the women fashion sector (Brakus, 2009, 13). When brand loyalty, as per an organization within the fashion industry, faces low customers, there is a possibility of having numerous effects. The impacts can include customers moving to the competitor’s side, brand image, income unbalance, as well as low customer satisfaction. For instance, Beauty Care fashion organization and Jade Company of Fashion, the switching cost of customers is meager. Concerning this, there is a possibility of the customers moving to the side of the competitors more so of the ladies’ customer.

According to Brakus, in the past, numerous researchers have conducted some research regarding brand loyalty of customers. The established market has since considered many of the consumers to be general consumers; hence there is no specific segment that is targeted (Esmaeilpour, 2015, 35). It indicates that brand loyalty for fashion consumers in 2020 is an area of interest for researching since it is in this line that there are always updated current trends that are experienced daily. It can be considered to be a threat since the 2020 fashion consumers do change their style of fashion more rapidly, and this makes the consumers not to be brand loyal.

Existing is numerous researches concerning brand loyalty that are being seconded within developed regions like the UK, the US, and Taiwan. The area coverage regarding brand loyalty can be considered extensive as well as the potential factors which have been investigated already by others. Nevertheless, the research is focused on looking at the factors that are driving brand loyalty within fashion consumers in 2020. The obtained results of the study can be useful to a company so as to assist in a better understanding of the 2020 generation, and this will assist them in increasing brand loyalty within the fashion industry. In regard to academic research, the paper has dependent and independent variables having in mind that any of the single variables requires clarification in order to confirm the importance of any of the variables (Esmaeilpour, 2015, 45-56).

Objectives of the Study

To investigate the cost of switching within the fashion industry.

To investigate the behavior of consumers of fashion 2020 on the loyalty of brands in the fashion industry.

To investigate the satisfaction of consumers in regard to loyalty of brand within the fashion industry.

To investigate the experience of brand affecting loyalty of brand within the fashion industry.

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Brand Loyalty

In the world of business, brand loyalty is critical and is recognized highly. Brand loyalty is always considered to be the primary vital constructs in regard to conceptualizations to consumer brand equity. (Dahl, 2013, 23). “With the percentage of the brands going up, the market shares also go up with the brand also becoming profitable (31).” In regard to the statement, the definition of brand loyalty can be considered to be an outcome arising from consumer’s behaviors, and this is influenced by the preferences of a person. Similarly, it can be considered to be a consumer that repeats purchases originating from the preferred leading brand irrespective of how the prices of the competitors differ. With this, the consumer will not resort to the substitute brand since they will always have it in mind that the preferred brand is much superior to the competitor brands.

The increasing percentage of the consumers can result in word of mouth as well as resistance that is great amongst the price-sensitive and loyal customers. On the other side, brand loyalty can be considered to be a feeling that is positive from the consumer towards the targeted brand as well as intense dedication so as to keep the purchase of the service or the products repeated. Brand loyalty comprises of the behavioral component as well as attitudinal. The attitudinal loyalty consists of the willingness of the consumer to buy a product or service at a higher price and end up overcoming the purchasing obstacles (Arnold, 2011, 43). Behavioral loyalty is considered to be the actual critical action engaged in the repetition of purchases. For illustrations, a consumer can possess behavioral commitment concerning buying Apple iPhone although there are alternative in the markets because of the attitudinal loyalty will make a consumer not buy other brands

According to Arnold (2011), when price incentives are viewed to be attractive as compared to the benefits of the provided brand, the end-use consumer may be in a position to use price incentives, and this will, in turn, affect brand loyalty. There is a possibility that brand loyalty increases with other brand advantages being more outstanding more that the incentives of the price.

2.2 The Fashion Industry

Fashion is a term that can be described as a concept comprising of numerous interpretations and is being applied in a different context (Cohen, 2013, 28). Fashion is also considered a trend that is popular with regard to dress code. The vocabularies asked to relate to fashion include clothing, style, dress, and accessories. Usually, these are always designed by famous designers. Fashion can be linked to changes and can be defined by succession in regard to sorting duration trends.

The real changes are always associated with the social, economic, and political transformations, which do results in the establishment of a new product (Cohen, 2013, 35). Previously, most fashion companies focused on the desires and wants of the consumers and ended up creating demands through the launching of the seasonal trends. This has made fashion company to be a highly competitive market since they maintain offering lower prices as well as good qualities so as to test compete and try against other competitors.

Nevertheless, with today’s fashion world, this method is not applicable. The industries are currently applying the change of demands as well as behaviors that arise from the consumer method. The evolution of needs provides a trend of fashion, which allows the consumers to maintain following the next latest way to come.

2.3 Fashion Consumer 2020

According to Cohen (2013), the fashion consumer 2020 plays a vital role in the market segment since this depends on their large size as well as the current significant spending power amount together with the inherent capability of the enormous spending amount within the scheduled time. The population of fashion consumers in 2020 is 38.1% of the whole community. They are considered to be the potential marketplace for fashion companies to focus on. Being that the fashion consumer 2020 comprises of young generations and has the capability of financial powers, the fashion companies if in a position of reaching the early and develop a good bond; it can result in a future profitable relationship. Since the lifetime and loyalty of fashion consumer 2020 is longer than the previous consumer.

2.4 Consumer Behavior

According to Arnold (2011), the behavior of a consumer is always described through external events as well as the things that are done by organisms. This involves feelings, thoughts, and actions which are considered to be behavior. Human is considered to be rational and self-interested and makes decisions that are based on the capacity of expanding utility as they consume the slightest exertion. Based on the topic of research, it is evident that there is a bond that is amongst brand loyalty and consumer behavior. With the percentage of the brands going up, the market shares also go up with the brand becoming profitable. In regard to the statement, the definition of brand loyalty can be considered to be an outcome arising from consumer’s behaviors, and this is influenced by the preferences of a person. Similarly, it can be viewed as a consumer that repeats purchases originating from the preferred leading brand irrespective of how the prices of the competitors differ. With this, the consumer will not resort to the substitute brand since they will always have it in mind that the preferred brand is much superior to the competitor brands. The result of the study not only assisting in formulation customer’s policy retention appropriately, but it also supports in the market segment, which is much more than cost-effective. Brand loyalty can be considered to be a threat since the 2020 fashion consumers do change their style of fashion more rapidly, and this makes the consumers not to be brand loyal.

2.5 Customer Satisfaction

Concerning consumer satisfaction, it can be considered to be external or internal satisfaction. The inner happiness can be deemed to be the potential of the company to satisfy the needs of its employees, while external satisfaction is considered to be the potential of a company letting its customers fulfill their services or products (Gurau, 2012, 55). Even though the satisfaction of consumers can be viewed to be the full level of attainment from customer protection, other authors see it to be a well-compiled needs of consumer expectation on the services and products. For illustrations, in regard to skincare products, when the customer tries the brand and becomes satisfied with the content of the brand, the customer will continue using the same brand repeatedly. From the discussion, the potential relationship amongst brand loyalty and customer satisfaction exist.

2.6 The Switching Cost

In existence are numerous definitions regarding switching costs that are defined by other researchers. It can be considered to be a way of companies taking competitive advantages through making it expensive and difficult for consumers to move to their competitors. It can also be deemed to be a conceptualized customer perception in regard to the magnitude of extra cost in order to finish the existing current bond as well as guarantee the next option to block customers switch to the offer of competitor (Haj-Salam, 2014, 67). In existence are the three kinds of switching cost:

Financial Costs- it comprises of the losses incurred in financial cost as well as the benefits

Procedural costs- it contains effort spent, time costs, economic risks, evaluation costs as well as set up prices.

Relational costs – it includes the discomfort of the emotional and psychological as a result of identity loss.

Customer switching cost plays a vital role in retaining the customers, and this assists in achieving competitive advantage. For a company to have a competitive advantage, then it will need to develop a barrier that is costly and difficult for the consumers to move to the competitors.

2.7 Brand Experience

Brand experience comprises of product experience, which occurs at the time when the consumer interacts with a particular product. It also comprises of service experience, which happens when the consumer interacts with personal atmospheric and variables. It also has consumer experience which occurs in the multidimensional constitution. Brand experience refers to interaction amongst brand products and consumers who have used the product making the customer experience to be the brand. Consumers have the ability to remember the knowledge of the brand as compared to the logo. If they are satisfied with the experience, then they will always remain loyal to the brand. Brand experience may be viewed as sensory dimensions that target on the sense of touch, taste, vision, and smell (Dahl, 2013, 77).

THEORIES

Following the research, some approaches may be applied in determining the key factors explaining brand loyalty within the fashion industry. Brand loyalty is considered to be a hypothetical construct, and that is the variable that is not directly observed. Theories regarding brand loyalty can be viewed to be a positive tendency that is biased, having distinct dimensions. The emotive tendency, the evaluative tendency, and the behavioral trend towards the brand. Within behavioral tendency, which is considered to a response towards brand loyalty concerning the purchase, consumption activities as well acquisition (Fermerino, 2010, 58).

RESEARCH FRAMEWORK

Brand Loyalty in Fashion Consumers 2020

The switching cost

The brand experience

Consumer satisfaction

The consumer

behavior

From the above figure, the research framework is illustrated having the description of both independence and dependence variables. Dependent variable is considered to be the loyalty of brand within fashion consumers while the independence being brand experience, switching cost, buying behavior as well as customer satisfaction. The main aim is to investigate the factors that are driving brand loyalty in fashion consumers in 2020. The framework that is proposed indicates that customer satisfaction, consumer buying behavior, switching cost as well as the brand experience has a direct relationship in regard to brand loyalty within fashion consumer.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

The variable of dependence can be viewed to be the response measured after making some changes to independent variables. On the other side, the independent variables can be discussed to be the changing variable so as determine the dependent variable. The key factors that are driving brand loyalty in fashion consumers in 2020 are the brand experience, consumer behavior of buying, switching costs as well as customer satisfaction. The items sampled are based on researches that have been done previously, with others being modified on its origin. The questionnaire will be using the scale which will assist in measuring responses that will come from survey research. Within the questionnaire, various factors that are driving brand loyalty in fashion consumers in 2020 are required to be rated.

A pilot test considered to be a small study scale will be used since the results are preliminary and are proposed so as to support within the design of the study. The pilot test is always conducted before the large survey scale is taken. The purpose of the test is mainly to test reliability as well as validity. It is also used so as to assist in recognizing errors that are within the designed questionnaire. The conclusion of the pilot test will be with the Cronbach alpha that will be used in examining test reliability. The number that is distributed for the pilot test is 60 respondents. It was conducted through the use of SPSS version 20. Testing of the data is to assist in meeting multivariate assumptions before testing multiple regressions (Education, 2015, 13).

In existence are four forms of testing data assumptions like linearity, normality, multi-collinearity as well as homogeneity. The normality test is used in the observation of the degree of the data distribution matches to normal distribution. The shape will end up being a bell-shaped curve. In the linearity, it checks research variables that are related to one another in a linear manner pattern and is in a straight scatterplot line. The co-efficient of Pearson correlation assesses the direct relationship degree amongst two variables. The association stands to be descriptive statistics in order to get to know as well as possibly understand the method widely. Correlation refers to co-relate, and it relates to the measurement of relationships amongst two or many variables. The range of correlation coefficient is between 1.0 to + 1.0. The assumption of homoscedasticity is considered to be a computable variable that is dependent. It has equal levels regarding variability throughout the independent variable. Finally, multi-collinearity is deemed to be several variables that independent, which are strictly interrelated in the regression models to one another (Education, 2015, 43).

5.1. Reliability Statistics

Table 1.

Cronbach’s Alpha

Number of Item

.776

60

From the results in the table above, the alpha of Cronbach is 0.776, and this is greater than 0.70. it means the pilot test is very much reliable, and it is very okay to use it in conducting other research to other respondents in order to achieve useful data.

5.2. Correlation Test.

Table 2.

Brand Loyalty

Consumer

Behavior

Customer

Satisfaction

Brand Experience

Switching

Cost

Brand loyalty

Pearson Correlation

Sig 2 tailed

N

1

.200

.508

.000

.200

.288

.000

.200

.138

.051

.200

.098

.107

.200

Consumer

Behavior

Pearson Correlation

Sig 2 tailed

N

.508

.000

.200

1

.200

.291

.000

.200

.114

.107

.200

.096

.178

.200

Customer

Satisfaction

Pearson Correlation

Sig 2 tailed

N

.288

.000

.200

.291

.000

.200

1

.200

.152

.032

.200

.132

.062

.200

Brand

Experience

Pearson Correlation

Sig 2 tailed

N

.138

.051

.200

.114

.107

.200

.152

.032

.200

1

.200

.389

.000

.200

Switching

Cost

Pearson Correlation

Sig 2 tailed

N

.098

.107

.200

.096

.178

.200

.132

.062

.200

.389

.000

.200

1

.200

The coefficient Pearson’s correlation is an analysis used in measuring the bond amongst tow variables. If the variable impact is felt on another variable, it is concluded that it correlates within two variables. The variables here are the independent and dependent variables with independent variables being used as indicators, while dependent variables being the changes that can occur. The correlation analysis is done through the use of SPSS, having the data that is collected from 200 people. The range of the correlation within the SPSS is plus or minus 1.0 having the coefficient of +1.0. This means that it has a perfect positive relationship, and if -1.0 is seen, it is considered to be a perfect negative correlation.

Having a perfect positive correlation means that if at all, there is a change within the independent variables, it means that it will have a direct effect on the dependent variables. On perfect negative correlation, having any change on the independent variables won’t have any effect on the variables. Based on the SPSS analysis, there is a positive correlation with brand loyalty being a dependent variable with consumer behavior having the dependent variable with high correlation.

Model Summary

Table 3

M

R

R Square

Adjusted R

Square

STD Error of

Estimate

The Durbin

Watson

1

.533

.269

.269

.40613

1.610

The research possesses a total variation of 28.4% dependent variable that can be enlightened by independent variables. Moreover, Durbin-Watson is considered to be a statistical test that can be applied in examining auto-correlation that arises from the regression analysis. It has a range value of 1-3. It is 1.610 that is within the range. This implies no inter-item correlation.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

In conclusion, the overall limitations, summaries, implications, and recommendations are addressed in this chapter. The obtained results are helpful for the research that will be conducted later. On the other hand, this can assist the fashion industry in understanding consumers’ brand loyalty since it will help in knowing variables that can be expanded for the further horizon, increasing company reputation as well as increasing shareholders’ profit with the stakeholder preference. The recommendation is that future research should have focus on different interests for fashion consumers as well as to enlarge data collection, which is not included in the study for both the rural and urban consumers.

Again, it recommends that users of convenience method of sampling to be avoided since it can only retrieve data from the respondent that are merely convenient at the moment. To the fashion industry, it needs to focus on increasing consumer’s perceptions regarding consumer satisfaction and consumer behavior. The fashion industry needs to launch numerous styles and designs more so for fashion runways. To promote and keep the customers in touch with brand loyalty as well as retain the consumers, they need to work on their designs. Finally, nowadays, most people are computer literate, they need to do marketing their products as well as information through the internet to assist in capturing attention and luring bait.

REFERENCES

Arnold, J. (2011). Work Psychology: Understanding human behavior in the workplace. London:

Brakus, J. J. (2009). Brand experience: What is it? Who is it measure? Does it affect loyalty? Journal of Marketing, 52-68.

Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2013). Research methods in education. New York.

Dahl, D. (2013). Social Influence and Consumer Behavior. Journal of Consumer Research.

Education, I. F. (2015). What does Cronbach’s alpha mean? Institute for Digital Research and Education.

Esmaeilpour, F. (2015). The role of functional and symbolic brand associations on brand loyalty: A study on luxury brands. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, 19(4), 467-484.

Fornerino, M., & D’Hauteville, F. (2010). How good does it taste? Is it the product or the brand? A contribution to brand equity evaluation. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 34-43.

Gurău, C. (2012). A life‐stage analysis of consumer loyalty profile: comparing Generation X and Millennial consumers. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 103-113.

Haj-Salem, N. (2014). The double-edged sword: the positive and negative effects of switching costs on customer exit and revenge. Journal of Business Research, 1106-1113.

Kim, H. (2012). The dimensionality of fashion‐brand experience: Aligning consumer‐based brand equity approach. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, 16(4), 418-441.

APPENDIX: DATA TABLE

Variables

Hypothesis

Computed

Codes

SPSS

Code

Measurement

Items

Source

Adopted

Forms

Answers

The consumer

behavior

H1,H2,H3

Behavior

B1

B2

B3

There is an important bond between behavior of consumers of fashion 2020 on the loyalty of brands in the fashion industry.

Does consumer behavior affect fashion industry?

Does consumer behavior affect marketing firms?

Brakus 2009

Cohen 2013

Dahl 2013

Agree

Disagree

Not sure

1Agree

2.Disagree

3.Not sure

1Agree

2.Disagree

3.Not sure

Consumer

Satisfaction

H2,H3

Satisfaction

S1

S2

S3

Do you agree that satisfaction of consumers in regard to loyalty of brand within the fashion industry is important in marketing?

Does consumer satisfaction play a major role in the fashion industry?

Does consumer satisfaction affect brand loyalty?

Arnold 2011

Esmaei 2015

Edu. 2015

Agree

Disagree

Not sure

Agree

Disagree

Not sure

1.Agree

2. Disagree

3.Not sure

The brand

Experience

H3

Experience

E1

E2

E3

Do you agree experience of brand affecting loyalty of brand within the fashion industry?

Do you trust your experience in regard to brand loyalty?

From your experience, do you believe in brand loyalty?

Fer…2010

Hay 2014

Gurau 2012

Agree

Disagree

Not sure

1Agree

2Disagree

3.Not sure

1Agree

2.Disagree

3.Not sure

The switching

Cost

H4

Cost

C1

C2

C3

Do you agree with the switching cost in the fashion industry?

Do you agree on the connection between brand loyalty and switching cost?

Do you agree that consumer satisfaction and brand loyalty plays a role in switching cost?

Gurau 2012

Kim 2012

Cohen 2013

Agree

Disagree

Not sure

Agree

Disagree

Not sure

1.Agree

2.Disagree

3.NotSure

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