Thrush (Oral Candidiasis)

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Thrush is a condition, an infection, or a ailment in human beings caused by candida fungus. Candida fungus is yeast observed in the mouth and other parts of the physique like the virginal. Therefore, one can get the thrush in the mouth as well as other components of the body. Individuals with strange white rush within their mouths should be suffering from this condition regarded as rush. The rush is severe in children even although it affects adults too. In young kids or infants, it causes diaper rash while in female it causes a virginal yeast infection. According to research via Gould & Dinah (2012), rush can affect anyone. However, it is common for toddlers and babies, adults with weaker immune systems as well as people in their old age.

Discovery of thrush

200 years ago, a medical discovery occurred when a disease that causes white tongue first noted by Greek mycologist who correctly identified it as a fungal pathogen. However, no botanical name sited. One of the immediate contentions while defining thrush is the question of its origin- whether it originates from the host or it is an infectious agent (Gould & Dinah 2012). While Langenbeck first wrote about the fungus associated with thrush, however, he did not make a direct connection (Gould & Dinah 2012).

Charles Philippe Robin- a French mycologist, classified this fungus as Oidium albican (to whiten) to name this fungus that causes thrush while others classified the fungus as Monilia associated with plants. Christine Berkhout noted the different and the fact that plant fungus cannot cause infection in human and reclassified it in the modern genus, Candida. Eighth Botanical Congress in 1954 agreed to adopt the botanical name Candida albicans (Junqueira & Juliana 2009). Currently, genus Candida has 200 organisms’ species which are yeast-like cells (anamorphic fungi) classified as Blatomycetes. Out of the 200 fungi, only six species, C. glabrata, C. lusitanea, C. albicans, C. trapicalis, C. krusei, and C. parapsilosi are causing human infection (Junqueira & Juliana 2009).

Oral Thrush Aetiology

by Candida albicans fungus causes oral thrush. The thrush occurs when Candida albicans grows out of proportion or control. Generally, the body of a person contains both good and bad fungus as well as the bacteria. The immune system of an individual body uses good microorganisms to keep in check the growth of diseases causing organism like C. albicans. Disruption of the immune system enables the dangerous microorganism to begin multiplying at an alarming rate leading to infections development (McCool &Logan 2012).

The occurrence of oral thrush is common in cases where the immune system has been weakened due to either treatment or other diseases that weaken the immunity of the body. Medication such as cancer treatments that involves radiation and chemotherapy reducing the number of good microorganisms is likely to suffer oral thrush. Individuals who have Leukemia, HIV/AIDS and diabetes often experience oral thrush. New-born babies are likely to suffer oral thrush when the mother is suffering yeast infection- diseases caused by the same fungus.

Thrush population

Thrush is a very common infection, and a large number of people suffer from it; however, the fact that it is not a life-threatening infection majority tends to live with it rather than treat it. Research indicates that up to 46000 people are affected yearly in the U.S every year (Wang & Shyh-Jen 201). In Baltimore and Atlanta areas, averagely 12 out of 100000 people are affected; however, the thrush distribution and incidences vary according to the patient population and geographical location (Wang & Shyh-Jen 201).

Stage of Thrush Development

The thrush infection has five stages of development. At stage one individual does not experience major changes or discomforts in their body, however, once in a while he/she does not feel a hundred percent right. The second stage there is small irritations and digestive problems that cause discomfort, headache, allergies, fatigue, and sensitivities among others. There are also canker sores in the mouth, thrush in the virginal or mouth. The groins start to inch for women and men as well as mild skin irritations (Loo & May 2009). For women, vaginal discharge begins to appear.

In stage three, individual begin to suffer some problems that cause severe discomforts such as hormonal imbalances, gastrointestinal problems, occasional sleep disruption, pain, and full blown symptoms mentioned in stage two (Loo & May 2009). At this point, the person suffers full discomfort. In stage four, sleep disorders are pronounced, fatigue, depression, and low or high blood pressure are common. Rheumatism and arthritis also occur at this stage. The fifth stage commonly occurs to individuals diagnosed with life-threatening diseases or conditions like an acute heart attack, cancer, and HIV/AIDS among other killer diseases (“Oral Health: Keeping Your Mouth Clean and Healthy.” 2011).

Diagnostic Tools of Thrush

Clinically, physician or dentist makes a diagnosis for thrush when white patches are observed in your throat or mouth. Scraping may be carried out to confirm that the white spots are thrush (caused by Candida). The physician takes the white matter from your mouth and looks it up under a microscope for fungal yeast-shape characteristics (Wright, Maree & Sibanyoni 2009). Doctors use endoscopy to diagnose thrush located in the esophagus down the throat. Gastroenterologist carries out Endoscopy where he/she drops a small camera at the back of the throat even into the stomach to observe the inner tissues and take samples. A presence of white matter leads to scraping for microscope observation (Wright, Maree & Sibanyoni 2009).

Treatment of Thrush

Thrush treatment depends on its severity and causes as well as the type. A thrush caused by smoking, taking antibiotics, poorly control diabetes, or ill-fitting dentures requires that the causing factors are corrected and made part of the treatment (Young &David 2001). Toddlers, infants, and children do not need any treatment. However, the paediatrician may prescribe antifungal for those who have persisted thrush for weeks. An adult diagnosed with thrush which mild, the doctor only prescribes antifungal mouthwash such as nystatin or lozenges otherwise stronger medication like Diflucan or Sporanox are prescribed (Young &David 2001).

Works Cited

Gould, Dinah. “Diagnosis, prevention and treatment of fungal infections.” Primary Health Care 22.6 (2012): 32-39.

Junqueira, Juliana Campos. “Models hosts for the study of oral candidiasis.” Recent Advances on Model Hosts. Springer New York, 2012. 95-105.

Loo, May. “Thrush.” Integrative Medicine for Children, 2009, pp. 446-447

McCool, Logan. 2012. “The Discovery and Naming of Candida albicans.”

“Oral Health: Keeping Your Mouth Clean and Healthy.” Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health, vol. 56, no. 2, 2011, pp. 187-188, doi:10.1111/j.1542-2011.2010.00058.x. Wang, Shyh-Jen. “Candida vaccines development from the point view of US patent application.” Human vaccines 7.11 (2011): 1165-1171.

Wright, S. C., J. E. Maree, and M. Sibanyoni. “Treatment of oral thrush in HIV/AIDS patients with lemon juice and lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) and gentian violet.” Phytomedicine 16.2 (2009): 118-124.

Young, Gavin, and David Jewell. “Topical treatment for vaginal candidiasis (thrush) in pregnancy.” The Cochrane Library (2001).

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