Often known as the Soyuz Sovetskikh, Soviet Union Rissian, or the Sovetesky Soyuz, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republicans was formerly recognized as the Eurasian empire from 1917-1991. (Eberhard 20). There were 15 S.S.R. (Soviet Socialist Republics) from the Black and Baltic Seas of the Pacific Ocean, including Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belorussia, Georgia, Estonia, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Latvia, Moldova, Tajikistan, Russia, Uzbekistan, Ukraine, and Turkmenistan (Brezinski 201). It was the Capital of Russia, formerly known as the capital of Moscow. In this paper, we will explore the specificity of the economic development of Russia’s political status over the past two decades and the current economic and social situation of the country. The article also contains the history of the former republics of the Soviet Socialists.
As well known, Russia was a political country that passed through liberalization in 1900 and the in 2000, re-etatization followed. Russia was known to be among the fifteen largest republics that formed up the Soviet Union through the accounting of the gross domestic products for about 60 percent. It also formed the Communist Party as well as the Soviet military. Russia was a Federation that accepted the diplomatic affairs of the Soviet Union’s Federation through the assumption of the USSR’s membership as well as Veto in the UN Security Council. However, it lacked the territorial boundaries, the political powers over the former Soviet and the military. Prior to this, the Soviet Union dissolution elected Boris Yeltsin as the president of Russia in 1991 making Russia to have a history of direct presidential elections. In return, the Soviet military wanted to overthrow Gorbachev by wrestling the Russian leadership which was seen as a political turmoil.
By the time October reached still in the same year, the USSR nearly collapsed thus making the president announce that the radical reforms would continue through the market oriented reform of the shock therapy that was still known as ‘Poland’s big bang,’ (Cheloukhine 716). In 1992, the Russian armed forces were disarrayed one year after the dissolution which degraded the military power during the 1994 Chechen war. It, however, found some challenges that were significant to the arms control and the global security. Under the leadership of Russia, the Soviet republic was disarmed by the Libson Protocol from their nuclear weapons. The former Soviet republics were then capable of establishing the responsibilities of space & rocket infrastructure as well as maintaining the transnational cooperation.
During the Union Soviet Socialist existence, the U.S.S.R was considered as the largest country in the world because of its diverse, distinct nationalities that lived within the borders. Most of the population were the East Slavs (Belorussians, Russians and the Ukrainians) who were made up of more than two-thirds of the 1980’s population (Cheloukhine 816). To a large degree, the U.S.S.R covered about 24,400,000 kilometers to India and about twice in the U.S. Russians subjugated one-sixth of the world comprising of the half of Eastern Europe and partly on Asia. U.S.S.R also hand protracted for over 6,800 miles covering about 11 of the Globes 24 time zones. Most of them were based near the Baltic Sea around the Kaliningrad and the eastern side of Cape Dezhnez near the Bering Strait. In addition, it had the longest frontiers and coastlines that were bound by the Arctic and Pacific Oceans. U.S.S.R also bordered the Northern part of Korea, China, Mongolia, Turkey, Iran, and Afghanistan. The southern frontier, on the other hand, was governed by three seas: the largest inland sea, the Caspian Sea, and the Black Sea which was commonly known as the Sea of Azov.
The U.S.S.R then became Russia’s successor during the 1917 revolution particularly when there was the formation of the four socialist republics on the former territory empire who were the Transcaucasian Soviet Federate, the Russian, the Ukraine, and the Belorussian Soviet Republics. In 1922, this government formed the U.S.S.R. Additionally, the Soviet Social Republics were established in the subsequent years by the UzbekS.S.R.’s &Turkmen in 1924, the Tadzhik in 1929 and the Kirgiz S.S.R.’s and the Kazakh in 1936 (Cheloukhine 661). However, in 1940, the Estonian, Moldavian, Lithuanian S.S.R.’s and the Karelo-Finnish were established. In 1956, the Karelo-Finish converted to the autonomous republic leaving behind a total of 15 soyuznye respubliki (Cheloukhine 914).
In 1930, the formation of the U.S.S.R by the Soviets was modified and adopted under the constitution of the people’s deputies which made them exist in the Soviet Union and the administrative hierarchy under the U.S.S.R Supreme Soviet. The modification brought about two bodies of the Soviet of Nationalities with the representation of about 750 members who had various political divisions. It was until 1990 in March when the constitution was amended under article 6 which was the guiding and leading force of the nucleus political system as well as the Soviet society. In theory, all the legislation had to approve the two chambers of the Supreme Soviet by a small group known as Presidium of the Supreme Soviet. It later influenced the Politburo who was adopted by the Soviet deputies. The role of the Soviet in this case and the Republicans were to affect the vast decisions that came from U.S.S.R Supreme Soviet.
In 1980, there were economic and political changes that ushered the adoption of restructuring (Perestroika) and openness (glasnost). The economic change involved the planning of the highly centralized command that was meant to replace the liberal overview of the fundamentals of the market economy. The change became hard to achieve because of the accompaniment of the declining production in most of the sectors. Also, the distribution problem increased. The political sphere replaced the old Supreme Soviet in 1988 of the U.S.S.R Congress (Brady 201). The new congress had a third of the elected members who were approximately 2,250 members that represented the political theories. The People’s Deputies Congress later elected 542 new Supreme Soviet members as well as a chairperson who was purposed to be the executive president to the U.S.S.R Congress.
In 1991, the Soviet Socialist Republics ceased the future of the terrorists because of the uncertainty of the three republics (Lithuania, Estonia, and Latvia). They did this by completing the recognition of the sovereign states and the demand of dependence. Attempts were later made by the Soviet Union president (Mikhali Gorbachev) by establishing the new Union of Sovereign state through the integration of the economy affairs, the defense as well as the foreign policy (Cheloukhine 1002). However, their agreement made 12 Republicans not to achieve independence. They later negotiated with each other to bypass the vestigial central government.
The same year, the process of dissolving the parties ended by the signing of an agreement that was based on a commitment between Russia’s Slav republics, Belarus and Ukraine for a better formation of the Commonwealth in the CIS (Independent state) (Brezinski 441). The CIS later left out the democracies and Georgia because of the challenges it had particularly when it agreed with the policies. This made the future uncertain because the Commonwealth leaders stated no agreement and so the U.S.S.R stopped the geopolitical reality. The Congress who were also known as the Parliaments later engaged in debates concerning the political and economic future of Russia. In 1989, there was a conflict between the individual’s Republic and the U.S.S.R concerning the Republicans and the U.S.S.R government’s powers (Brady 125). These conflicts increased the demands of the autonomy by the resurgence of the increasing requirements and the ethnic nationalism. In 1991, the parliament was aborted because Russia wanted to have full independence.
The Russian Revolution
In the 19th century, Russia entered into an internal phase crisis that culminated the revolution. However, the effect did not affect the economic, cultural and political status but shut the participation of the government. At the same time, it upheld great power through industrial development as well as higher education that were inherently dynamic. This brought constant tension between the society and the government particularly in the education aspect known as intelligentsia. The pressure also resulted in the collapse of the tsarism’s ultimate which was purposed to regulate overpopulation in Russia because it had the highest demographic evolution in Europe. By the time the 19th century ended, the population had increased by 50 percent thus destabilizing the mass of the Russian peasantry through the acknowledgment of private property land (Golosov 1114).
The political conflict later rutted three protagonists: the intelligentsia, the peasantry, and the tsarism. The tsar in this case had unlimited and absolute authority because of the subjection of the restraints from the parliamentary institutions. He ruled Russia with the aid of the bureaucratic caste that was subjected to the above law and the external controls. Russia later developed a great Imperial that made it a powerful and ubiquitous security system which had less totalitarianism due to the enforced limitations of the institutions of private property. About eighty percent of the Russian empire was made up of the peasants who lived in obshchiny (communes), (Melnycyke 380). They usually had a periodical and ordinary members that allowed their families to change in size. The organizations were made up of composed household heads that had powers over the members. Communal colleagues in this status never owned any land but only cultivated it for some time to determine the local custom. They also had small chances of evolving respect of private property because of lack of citizenship qualities. Politically, they inclined near the primitive anarchism. To some extent, industrial workers were developed from the villages.
In 1904, Russia was involved in a war with Japan thus making the Manchuria to be designed just before the beginning of the clashes (Westwood 177). The Union of Liberation later moved and presented the fundamental political reforms program. In 1905, Russia developed a petition from the Union of Liberation and the massacre that was demonstrated by workers which later exploded to a rebellion called the ‘Bloody Sunday,’ (Westwood 187). In October 17th same year Russia was faced to have a general strike that made Nicholas 11 (the emperor) to issue a manifesto that guaranteed the country a legislative parliament. The manifesto however finished the authoritarian system. In 1906, Russia had its own constitution from the elections that were done from Duma state which was commonly known as the representative body. The law promised the population the fundamental civil liberties through abolishment the Censorship.
Russia was later administered as the greatest statesman by the imperial era by Pyotr Stypin whose purpose was to carry out the great forms as well as suppressing the Parliament’s disorders (Melnycyke 394). The central administrations were to give way to the peasants so that they could withdraw from the established and the independent commune farmstead. Stolypin also shaped the self-reliant Yeomanry that acted as a stabilizer to the countryside. There were also other forms of political and social reforms that frustrated the hostility of the court and the opposition parties. The opposition and the government violated the Constitution created by Stypin by misusing the emergency clauses to adjourn the rule and Duma by decree. More specifically, they did this by sabotaging the legislative process. In 1911 Pyotr Stypin was murdered by the oppositions. In the last decade, Russia enjoyed after the death of Stypin and relative prosperity at the end of the World War it which made it become one of the leading producers of petroleum and significant exporters of grain.
The current Status of Russia
Contemporary Russia’s political geography is always fluctuating due to its historical rise and fall of the state. Geographers recognize the challenge that the vast distances within the land pose and have given this situation the title, ‘distance decay.’ This is one of the main issues that Russian national leaders face. In addition, Russia’s national leadership faces another problem stemming from the widespread territory. They face the problem of the capital city of Moscow being located in the far west of the country practically “half a world away” from other significant locations like Vladivostok (de Blij, Muller, Nijman, 102). This, of course, makes it difficult for the national leadership to maintain equal governance throughout the land. As well, in the distance factor, there is much disparity regarding the population size. Due to the capital location, communities on the east coast of Russia are much smaller in comparison to those near the western borders. This is another issue that any national leader must face as it is guaranteed to cause a significant amount of administrative troubles.
Current Russian Leadership, also, faces the problem of dealing with a lingering regulatory structure. Post-communist leaders have been forced to utilize the persistent and ineffective Soviet system. Because of its complexity, it has survived the implosion, and the collapse of Russia has forced its way into the modern administration even today. The country had been split up into a total of 83 entities or units, including okrugs and krays, who were to be governed by the same degree of interest or power. Another issue that the more current leadership of the nation faced in 1991 was that the attempt to establish Russia under the Russian Federation Treaty which made they realize that not all 83 of the regions were willing to sign. They found that certain units seemed more equal than others; in other words, “some were used to privilege under the old system, and their local leaders expected that to continue” (de Blij, Muller, Nijman, 104). The National leadership quickly discovered that a shift to democracy was necessary. This meant that there was a transition to the market economy and sale of land owned by the state. Otherwise, the nation would find itself immersed in complete chaos.
There were two viable options for the leadership to choose from: 1) they could construct a unitary state system or, 2) they could utilize a federal system. The single national scheme was the one which had a centralized government that continued to hold on to as much power as they could, thus, mimicking the ways of the past. The federal system that was eventually put in place was a system that left defense, foreign policy, and international trade decisions in the hands of the national government, but gave state powers to each region which was quite similar to the United States. After this system was put into place and there were no okrugs or krays or any other units that seemed lesser; rather each of these was only turned into a region to address the issue of Soviet Russia’s haunting favoritism. In 1992, the districts finally signed the Russian Federation Treaty, committing each area to operate under the new system. However, there were a few that initially refused. Of these included the Chechnya. At that point the military was used to intervene, of course, having a disastrous effect that remains to this day. In the year 2000, Vladimir Putin created his administration and under that, the 83 regions that once were so incredibly split apart. He also sought to combine into eight administrative units. Although the primary goal was not to create more equality, however, his intention were to increase Moscow’s control of the vast nation. Though a federal system was decided upon in 1991, it seems now that they are shifting to a more unitary way.
Considering Russia’s long and violent history, it ‘s not hard for someone to realize that Russia’s national leadership is faced with a broad range of issues. Each issue differs in its severity, but each challenge contributes to the plethora of difficulties that oppose the nation’s well-being. After many years of complete czarist control over the country, Russian leaders face the people and the attitude that the czars have unintentionally developed. Following that up with the rise and fall of the Soviet Union, it has left the government and the people dealing with the undesired implementations of the communist regime, thus limiting the amount of productivity that current leaders wish to enact. After years of hostility, the country is still at war with itself. Also, considering the size of the land to be governed I do not blame the current administration for its challenges. However, the country maintains a mighty status and is not a nation to be trifled with; although, the road that lies ahead of them remains unclear.
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