The revolution which shaped Egypt

This research paper will include a diachronic study of Egypt’s revolution in 2011. Given the revolution’s peculiar existence, it was made possible by the cumulative effects of a socio-political transition in Egypt’s society over the previous president Mubarak’s rule and numerous conditional events over the last decade. Nonetheless, these occurrences occurred prior to and on January 25th. In addition, the aim of this paper is to determine how the Egyptian revolution shapes Egypt, as well as the role of social media in the Egyptian revolution. As a result, numerous data was collected, as well as an empirical interpretation of the study. To help and apply the required data, papers, journals, books, interviews, and newsletters were used. This research paper is divided into five sections with section one being the introduction, thesis statement and a brief description of the main argument. Section two deals with the way in which social media played a role in Egypt while at the same time viewing of how the revolution shaped Egypt. Section three describes the causes of the revolution and the roles played by various groups to promote the change while chapter four looks deep into what Egyptians achieved from the revolution which they had not accomplished before. The last section will sum up the main argument and the supporting points about the data collected from the sources provided.

Keywords: Egyptian revolution, social media, youth, socio-political, socio-economic, religion

How did the Egyptian Revolution Shape Egypt and the Role of Social Media in the
Egyptian Revolution
Over the last ten years, many developing countries have suffered from escalating levels of social insecurity, lack of well-structured public sectors and pervasive corruption with feeble public corporate governance, which has destroyed the lives of the poor and increased poverty. Many studies had shown that before revolution Egyptian citizen’s had suffered from corruption, poor economic performances, high unemployment rates, low income and absence of political parties which could protect them against violence (Korotaye & Zinkina, 2011). They had reached a point of resentment that had a well-founded sense of discontent and social injustice. However, Egyptians used to adapt to these problems without objections although its youth failed to acknowledge the imbalances and decided to go for a change. The revolution took place in 2011, and the protesters were inspired by triumphant in Tunisia, indignation, and anger which encouraged them not to go back home without changing their destiny. The topic is of great importance due to the challenging transition phase the Egyptian revolution carries starting out with tribulations such as minimal foreign direct investments, high debt rate and low standards of living. Many factors triggered the bullets of revolution; for instance, thirty years of Mubarak ruling using emergency laws and lack of free and fair elections. Therefore, this research paper will reveal that the Egyptian revolution has shaped the country both economically and socially as well as politically.
Politically, the Muslim brotherhoods freedom and justice party is now the most authoritative political forces in Egypt. It was initiated after the citizens threw away the Mubarak ruling system after the presidential elections to the lower house of the parliament. The key function of the new parliament was to nominate 100 members of the assembly whose task was to write a new constitution which would include laws and policies governing the people’s rights. In this sense, people’s rights are now protected from violations, and it further shaped the contours of Egyptians future political institutions. The new constitution has also included citizens in decision-making processes, which has encouraged the development of local self-government institutions as well as increased the quality and overall effectiveness of the states governance system. The army of the freedom and justice party is now a strict guardian of popular civilian supremacy. Also, the revolution has led to a prolonged political transition due to the presence of difficulties evident in the leadership methods of defining creditable and clear guidelines for both economic and political reform.

Even though Egypt has begun to ease the emergency conditions which had engrossed the country before the revolution, the economy still has a long way to recover since unemployment rates are still high. One of the economic pillars in Egypt was tourism. Before the revolution, the country had a million tourists, which dropped by more than 60% after the revolution (Grier & Tullock, 1989). Hotel tenancy rates have also dropped with a higher percentage making the country lose almost two billion dollars in tourism revenues. Tourism has been negatively affected throughout the region where the decrease in arrivals was almost 45 percent in the first months of 2011 (World Bank, 2011). Also, Egyptian foreign exchange reserves and foreign investments have dramatically declined; during pre-revolution, they were 36 billion and 15 billion past revolution (Abdou & Zeinab, 2013). The decrease was sparked by vivid events in the country which took their levy on the receipts of foreign currencies.

The most significant effect of the Egyptian revolution was the transition from excessive use of violence from a dictatorial system to peaceful management of political disagreements. This has helped in demolishing barriers of lack of confidence and fear and replaced them with Egyptian pride since it is no longer allowing rulers and citizens to escape accountability for their offenses and misdemeanours. Acts of violence in the country have declined massively because of the strict laws and regulations put in place to deal with violence culprits.
Effects of social media, revolution, events and the day today in Egypt
The start to the fight for revelation in Egypt was a bold move that was coupled up with repeated oppression by the people in the nations. Due to this, it could be seen that the people had had enough of the administration that did not care about their need effectively and efficiently. That being the case, various modes and actions was utilized in ensuring that success was achieved through the getting back of the nation from the previous glory before the Mubarak rule.
Social media is one of the most powerful tools at the moment in the fight for freedom from various burning issues. The use of social media is a shift from the traditional use of the traditional resistance and revolution. In the present day, the use of this tool can recognize the relevant social support. As the platform is coupled with different individuals of various walks of life, there is the open way in which people exchange their ideas in the dynamic platform. As the administration has no control or full observation of all social media activities, people can find a loop hole in which they can be able to express their controversial ideas. Through this way, they can elicit distinct kind of morale and psychological trigger in the individuals that are party to the same ideas.
What can be viewed in the 2011revolution is that social media was able to support various ideas that led to the realization of freedom. The amount of impact that social media was able to create in the nation of Egypt cannot be assumed. As the thesis of the research work hopes to determine, the efficiency and effectiveness of social media were seen in such a clear manner. What started as a simple act, turned out to be the turning point towards the achievement of freedom and self-revelations.

Through the record of how Tunisia had tried to cut off the tie between them and oppression, it was a wakeup call for the Citizens of Egypt to stand up and fight for their right. It all started when there was a harassment of a vendor by a female policewoman who assaulted the vendor in public. Egypt is an Islamic nation, it was viewed that the act by the female assaulting a man as an act of disrespect and lack of considerations for the set Sharia Laws. The man efforts in finding justice fell on a deaf ear that he opted to end his life. What was seen to have disturbed the public was the brutal killing of an individual who had shared a video of the policemen sharing drugs in one of the raids. As a revenge mission, the police injured the individuals and killed him in the process.
Social media being a vast covering network was able to spread the acts of the police and how individuals supported for the protection and justice of the killed individuals. It is in this part that the full capability of social media is seen. Through the use of the social media, there can be the mobilization of individuals in the aim of creating actions that send the message to the relevant authority. In the case of the Egypt liberation, the youth were able to call for the meet up of the various individuals to the capital city to protest for the right of the individual to be protected. Through the meet ups, there is the clear use of the peaceful protest that called for the determination of the right and wrong. The wrong will have to agree of the injustice for the right to kick in. Through this way, it is a tool towards the realization of set goals that aims to satisfy the needs of the suffering individuals.
The other idea is the use of the social media as a means of spreading news or information. As the network is globally covered, a single remark can be able to elicit reaction amongst individuals in various parts of the world. Through this clear way, it informs the public of what occurred, what are right and what they opt to do with the message. This applies to the passing of the message of the police brutality was able to cause a stir of mixed reactions from various people. The idea towards the fighting of the rights of the fallen individuals was the fundamental factor that all people hoped to achieve for the satisfaction of their expressions.

Through the promotion of the fundamental right to the receiving of the information is a big milestone. As the law says this, it has been the best way that has ensured that all the people can receive the relevant information at the right time. In this way, individuals in Egypt have been able to be up to date with the various issues that are in the society.
Communication has been a clear way that has aided people in the achievement of their short-term as well as the long terms goals towards the development of the best society. The society has also had the fair share of being able to air their view without the fear of victimization. This way is on the right track towards the achievement of a democratic society.
The aftermath of the revolution can be said to have caused a two-sided change in the various issues in the society. To start with, it can be viewed through the revolution; individuals are more focused and open to the freedom of getting information through the use of the social media. With the high level of usage of the media, it can be seen that the proper utilization of the platform will lead to better social, political and cultural changes.
Consideration must also be made on the way in which will ensure democratic leadership in the society. Though there has been the change in the leadership in the nation, the expected change has not been achieved. Even though there is the high occupancy of the vendors in the street who work freely, the general situation is still wanting. The basic problems with the infrastructure and the way of life are still at a low level.
It the hope of many that the use of the same platform will bring about a revolution that will seek to address the issues on development and the benefit of the common citizen.
Causes of Egyptian revolution
Revolutions are fundamental prompt changes in the existing myths and values of a society in its social and political structure, leadership, and governmental policies. Since the death of Anwar Sadat who was the former president of Egypt in 1981, vice president Hosni Mubarak took over the power of the country. The way the Egyptian government worked gave him an opportunity to reinforce his hold. The constitution gave Mubarak the power to select the most important government positions such as the prime minister and members of the legislative bodies. Apart from this, Mubarak passed several amendments to reinforce his presidential power. The main cause of the revolution was the presence of “concentrated government which “employed the dictatorship type of leadership. This type of leadership had been linked with many other issues such as increased corruption and torture, faulty constitution, adoption of the emergency law and economic distress. 40% of Egyptians lived under international poverty line and forgery of parliament elections amongst others (Green, 2011). Political volatility and economic growth outcomes are deeply related. The thirty years of Mubarak ruling using the emergency laws triggered the bullets to revolution because it prohibited free and fair elections to be conducted. Furthermore, police hostility towards activists and the widespread of virtual opposition in the social media helped in generating the upheaval. Also, elimination of Islamic groups in the parliamentary elections encouraged the Egyptians to demand the revolution. Deteriorating social, economic conditions due to increased prices of goods and services also influenced them to riot.

The movements and struggles of Egyptian political life were largely youth-driven. During the time of Mubarak rule, the youth came up with several movements’ one being “We had had enough” which gained prominence (Azimi, 2005). The movement demanded accountability law violators who were involved in killing Egyptians. It also aimed in engaging crucial debates of separation of powers, setting minimum and maximum wages for its people, achieving independence of the judiciary and modification of protest law to control protests without prohibition (Fouad, 2014). Many acknowledgments went to the youth since they were willing to act as vehicles for revolution and bring change to the society. Their campaigns played important roles in pressuring the regime to liberate several activists. The release of the activists illustrated the power the youth movements had in influencing the state. The youths also persuaded citizens to pressure the country by employing some social and economic adjustments; for example, to decline to pay electric bills as an objection to regular power cuts.

Throughout the revolution period, religious phrases and purposes permeated social and cultural fabrics of the Egyptian life. Both Muslim and Christian traditions contributed much to the framing of the revolution thoughts in Egypt. Religious languages and standards enabled articulation and supported the uprising ethical allege for the masses. In addition, material by the protests during their stay in the Tahrir square indicated recognition of justice that was rooted in faith. Religion was present in the chants and the songs they sang which formed a revolutionary description which helped not only to make sense of losses but also to endorse a common understanding of human dignity and understanding that was crucial to the revolutionary call. The protestors had set their sacred places of worshipping in the Tahrir square and also attended weekly prayers every Friday so that God can emerge as conquers.
The economy also played a significant role in Egyptian revolution as it focused on the notions of poverty, youth unemployment, and inequitable income distribution. Changes in the political systems also had clear impacts on the states foreign stabilities and relations in the Middle East. As a result, recognizing the responsibility of economic motives in the revolution is vital in understanding Egyptians relations and their influences on stability. Poverty and economic inequalities among different groups were precursors of the Egyptian revolution. Food prices and external loans continued to grow during the era of Mubarak which gave them an insight of demanding revolution.
Consequences of the revolution on Egypt today and what was accomplished
Revolution in Egypt was accompanied by both negative and positive impacts. Looking ahead, one of the most important points concerning future Egyptian women is its precariousness. During the pre-revolution period, women had no voice in the state, but revolution made them become empowered. The government has taken several steps to end sexual harassment through the adoption of national strategies which promote women dignity and end violence. Also, Egyptian women have come up with several partnerships and groups so that they can build further coalition needed to bring change in Egypt. Their active participation in the rebellion has helped them to be involved in current developments in Egyptian politics and society. For instance, some female parliamentarians have augmented from 2 percent in 2013 to 15 percent in 2015. The new constitution has allowed Egyptian women access to essential stare services such as social protection, education, and health. These were not recognized during the Mubarak era. Although some studies reveal that the rights of women in Egypt need to be fought for in the real sense, the abuse of women before the revolution cannot be compared with their current well being which was accomplished after the rebellion.

Over the recent decades, Egypt has witnessed increasing tension between its sizeable Coptic Christians minority and its Muslim majority. In the big” day of departure,” Christian protests prepared a human chain around their Muslim sisters and brothers during their noon prayers which were a symbol of unity between them. The unity developed during their stay in the Tahrir Square where Muslims used to guard Coptic churches as Christians pray and Christian guarded mosques while Muslims prayed (Homles, 2016). After achieving the revolution, they have worked as a team without the denomination issues. This has led to political and economic developments.

Revolution has also transformed the Egyptian citizens with a new sense of positivity, solidarity, national pride, empowerment and determination since it broke the fear of expressing their demands to the leaders. Egyptians are also benefiting from the new leadership style ( a democratic type of leadership) since it’s them to choose their leaders by conducting free and fair elections. The fact that all Egyptians participated in the revolution events to bring change enhanced national pride and are now able to take care of the country’s wealth because they have the sense of belonging. The rebellion has also contributed to peaceful youth grassroots across the board which involves different social, religious and social groups (Arafat, 2006). Egyptian youth employed innovative strategies and methods, struggle tactics and mobilization to overcome the challenges they were facing. This has expanded their critical thinking and enabled them to create youth groups and movements which will protect their rights and freedom as well as strengthen unity among them.
The new authoritarian regime in Egypt has contributed to developing a new era of democratic and social reforms promoting citizens active and peaceful engagement in public affairs (Blaydes, 2011). This stands in pure contrast to the period following 2011 rebellion which encourages the activity of political parties and civil society as well as foster civilians to express freely their opinions and participate in political processes.

Conclusion
Indeed, Egyptian revolution that took place in 2011 is the most talked about the revolution in the world. Even though many reasons have appeared as causes of the revolution, the analysis points out that lack of democracy, tribal and religious tensions and pervasiveness of government corruption were not the primary channels to revolutions. These factors did not significantly contribute to the revolution, as they did not cause economy inequality and unbearable deprivation. The Egyptian revolution was thus due to the deteriorating state of the economy which amplified unemployment rates, poverty, disparity and unequal distribution of income. High unemployment rates and unequal distribution of income extensively contribute to high levels of poverty. The revolt in Egypt was more than an attempt to gain an ideal; for example, social rights and freedoms. However, developing the social and economic background of the rebellion, the fast-rising food prices were of great importance. The lack of food was a catalyst for this uprising since when one country (such as Egypt) becomes regularly dependent on getting the majority of its food supply from other countries, it lays itself open to food and economic crises. Also, the 2011 Egyptian revolution marked a new beginning, a beginning that was built on old socio-political frictions and attitudes and required time and patience to overcome. Regardless of the preliminary command of “insecure equilibrium” after Mubarak the contending political references and orientations concerning the future direction of the country, the emerged power centers failed to permit on a romanticized image of the society and state and also the means of achieving the idealized future.

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