State and Local Governance Research

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The numerous policies and initiatives adopted by governments have a major effect on the economic, social, and cultural facets of their respective geographical regions. These indicators decide how individuals communicate with the community and the political drive that stimulates development and growth. The paper would discuss the parallels and discrepancies between New York, Louisiana, and California regarding services, strategies, and procedures. The goal is to analyze and assess the most productive government through proven strategies and services that have had an effect on citizens. California, New York, and Louisiana have very distinctive governing structures making each government-unique with varied political structures.
California Government Structure, Governing Powers, and Economic Situation
The California constitution identifies two forms of counties, namely the charter and general law counties. The state law depicts the duties and number of elected county officials (California State Association of Counties, 2014). State law guides the general law form of counties. The charter counties possess limited authority, which stipulates the compensation, removal, terms, salary, and election of the governing board. However, the law does not provide for the appointment or election of the district attorney and county assessor and does not give county officials extra powers other than local budgetary regulations and intergovernmental organization.

The Californian constitution allows the county to develop and ensure enforcement of local laws that do not contradict or conflicts with the general federal rules. Unlike the power separation that exists in state and federal governments, the supervisors’ board has both the executive and legislative county powers. Five members as entailed in the code section always constitute the supervisors’ board. California State is composed of 478 cities that are incorporated and has special districts that are specifically created to perform some specified local proprietary or governmental functions. The cities perform an extensive range of tasks for the citizens. The special districts help in the provision of facilities and services within a specified boundary and are managed by aboard (Georgetown Law Library, 2017). The California state also has governmental organizations that are composed of local governments that work together to ensure the facilitation of research and the drawing up of plans regarding various areas of improvements such as economic growth, transportation, air quality, waste management and housing.

California has 58 counties with the chief executive being the governor who is always elected for a term that lasts four years and may serve for only a maximum of two terms. The dominance of the legislative is mostly held by the Southern California, which is populous at the expense of most of the rural areas. The California economy is one of the biggest state economies in the United States. California is a world leader in the manufacturing of electronics and computers. The region is also dominant in the television and film, aerospace, viticulture and the agriculture industries. Despite the booming economy, California is also one the states with highest rates of poverty. California government is divided into three branches, namely the judiciary, executive and the legislature.

Louisiana state structure, governing powers and economic situation.

The Louisiana government is divided into three main power branches namely the judiciary, the executive, and legislature. The chief senior executive officer is the governor who is elected to a four-year term and can serve for only two terms (Lousiana.gov, 2017). Louisiana has twenty departments where state elected officials head six. The remaining departments are under the governor and headed by their separate secretary. The governor shares the control powers of the executive with other elected state officials. The elected state officials in the executive include lieutenant governor who serves as the governor in the circumstances where there is a vacancy in the governor’s office or if the governor is out of state and when the governor is unable to act as prescribed by the law. There is also the secretary of state who is the chief officer responsible for elections and heads the state department. The attorney general is also elected and heads the justice department. There also exists the treasurer who heads the treasury department. Additionally, the forestry and agriculture commissioner is elected and chairs the forestry and agriculture department (Lousiana.gov, 2017). There is also the insurance commissioner who chairs the insurance department.

The legislature is constituted of two houses namely the Senate and the representative’s house. The Senate has thirty-nine members while the representative’s house has a maximum limit of 105 members. Louisiana is among the states with the worst economies in the United States. Agriculture is one of the leading economic activities in the state and provides a source of income to many citizens. Louisiana has several boards and commissions that help in the running of the state. The judicial branch is composed of the Supreme Court, the appellate courts, and federal courts

New York City

The New York City government is constituted under the charter, and it strongly follows the system of mayor-council. The political system adheres to the power separation system divided into the judiciary, executive, and legislature. The mayor who is the chief executive officer heads the executive. The executive also has various boards, departments, and commissions which operate under the mayor and help in ensuring every city programs are well implemented and working (Hierarchy Structures, 2017). The powers of the legislative branch are vested in the council of New York City, which is primarily a unicameral body, which is composed of fifty-one members. The speaker who is the second most influential person in the city after the mayor chairs the council. The New York City judicial branch is composed of two city courts, criminal court, civil courts, family court, surrogate court and the Supreme Court. The economy of New York City is large and has a steady growth. Technology, financial, healthcare and real estate sectors are the most significant drivers of this economy. The city is also a center of journalism, publishing and mass media in the whole country. The area is also the preeminent center of arts in the United States.

The California government has always cooperated with the federal government in the protection of the environmental programs that are rolled out and supervised by the environmental protection agency. California receives funds from the federal government environmental agency to help in the implementation of projects in Los Angeles, Sacramento, and Merced. The state has also enacted policies that regulate the pollution of the environment by the industrial activities, and an example is the green policy.

The Louisiana government cooperated with the federal government in helping the flood survivors last year. The program was conducted by the emergency management agency of the federal government in collaboration with the Louisiana state departments, which ensured the entire survivor’s rental assistance, repairs of homes and other needs related to the disaster. The Louisiana government also cooperates with the federal government in the implementation of environmental protection programs that help in curbing pollution in the country.

The government of New York City cooperated with the federal government in addressing the issue of homelessness of veterans through a joint program. The program was designed to help all the living veterans get decent home and was successful as the federal government a few years ago announced the end of it. The New York City government also cooperates with the federal government in the environmental protection programs.

The California government was the first state to roll out and implement the paid family leave program that has had tremendous positive impacts on the many citizens of California. The leave made it easy for many workers to access family leaves as opposed to the one of the federal government that is unpaid (Boushey & Glynn, 2012). The program allows the family members access to up to six weeks to take care of their new baby and be paid through an insurance program. The California government also implemented a policy concerning the offenders’ punishment that has a negative impact on the citizens. The policy was expensive and promoted overcrowding leading to the dangers of public safety and health.

The Louisiana government implemented a scholarship program that has benefited many people across the state. The program increased access to education ensuring the needy students progressed with their education in private schools. The program has mostly had an appositive impact on the minority groups that are now able to access selected public and private schools.

The mayor of New York City announced the start of a program that will help in the reduction and curbing of extreme heat during summers. The system will be implemented through the cool neighborhoods program that will help reduce the dangers that result from excess heat. The housing authority program that sought to dismantle most of the aging towers has a negative impact on the low-income citizens as it calls for increased parking fees and other related charges. The low-income citizens may not afford the increased costs. There has also been the rent regulation policy, which had adverse effects on many people in the given City.

California government implemented many economic development policies and programs that have made it one of the largest state economies in the country (Koehler & Hogan, 1996). The programs were successful because each targeted a specific sector of the economy hence ensuring completely consistent growth of the entire economy. The Louisiana government also implemented the professional development network that helps in the training of school staff to assist in the expansion of wellness opportunities. The program has been successful, as it has managed to reduce the levels of obesity among children and adults. The New York City enacted laws that governed the smoke-free public places and workplaces. The initiative led to a reduction in smoking among the many youths because of a well-coordinated media campaign and the increment in the funding of tobacco cessation and prevention programs

New York is the most efficient government in realizing the needs and wants of its people as most of the policies and programs are tailored towards addressing the social problems like traffic congestion, drug abuse, summer heat, housing programs and many more. The New York City economy has also been stable and growing being one of the biggest in the country which helps in improving the living standards through access to income-generating opportunities.

All the three levels of government have unique structures, governing powers, and the economic situations. New York City is headed by the mayor who is highly effective in responding to the social needs of its citizens as compared to the others. The New York government possesses some differences in the executive structures of power from the two governments. Governors are the top administrators in both California and Louisiana but have some distinct executive features. All the three levels of government have the same structure in the judicial branch of the executive.

References

Boushey, H., & Glynn, J. (2012). Celebrating the success of California’s Paid Family Leave Act. Retrieved from https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/economy/news/2012/09/27/39507/celebrating-the-success-of-californias-paid-family-leave-act/

California State Association of Counties. (2014). County structure and powers. Retrieved from http://www.counties.org/general-information/county-structure-0

Georgetown Law Library. (2017). Local governments. Retrieved from http://guides.ll.georgetown.edu/california-in-depth/local-governments

Hierarchy Structures. (2017). New York City political hierarchy. Retrieved from https://www.hierarchystructure.com/new-york-city-political-hierarchy/

Koehler, G. & Hogan, C. (1996). California economic development programs. Retrieved from https://www.library.ca.gov/CRB/96/11/index.html

Lousiana.gov. (2017). Government. Retrieved from http://louisiana.gov/Government/

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