Should land be given back to aboriginals

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Can the Australian Aboriginals be returned to their lands? The approach that will be used to extract answers will be followed diligently by indigenous testing approaches. As such, it will strive to follow a vision of the environment, truth, and knowledge that is vital to Aboriginal peoples’ everyday lives. It is important that their social practices be accepted as part of their life and that they be identified as indigenous peoples in their own and other indigenous ecosystems. The indigenous system and procedure of inquiry of this research therefore differs from ordinary methods because the researcher will endeavor to be part of the research. According to Douglass and Moustakas (1985), the most impartial evaluation is the one that takes the personal perspective fully into consideration.
Such indigenous methodology will honor their voices and experiences of the Aboriginals, and will emphasize contexts that have influenced their societies, politics and history (Frederick, 2007). The research will likewise endeavor to honor the complex views and information relating to the ontology, epistemology and axiology of Aboriginals.
According to Wilson (2001), these elements along with indigenous methodology comprises the indigenous research paradigm comprise. As such the researcher is to consider the ontological aspect of the indigenous people, to be able to gain knowledge of their perception and way of understanding within the context of their existence. Epistemology covers the nature of knowledge, while axiology is composed of their values and ethics.
Ontology and establishing a bond of connectivity is the framework that defines how research has been created and how it will be used in future practices (Henry, et al., 2002). Personal identification with indigenous peoples gives authenticity to the research. Truthfulness is crucial in presenting Indigenous people without distortion or reliance of stereotype representations. The researcher should honor indigenous knowledge, customs, rituals and ethics. They should not judge Indigenous peoples in terms of neo-colonial paradigms. Ontology is means to bring out the cultural differences that indigenous research uncovers and highlights how an individual may shape results. The personal story and the identification that follows is a way to give importance to the research. When the bias is acknowledged the research is more powerful and legitimate rather than ambiguous.
Indigenous people have a culture and value system to which they adhere and by which they are identified. Studies about Indigenous people demand a thorough understanding of decolonization which is imperative because of the insensitive manner in which research studies have been conducted by many researcher over the years. The Indigenous research practice has been replete with a lack of cultural and ethical understanding of the researchers’ Indigenous subjects (Graham, 2010).
Australia’s Aboriginals should be studies within the context of their history which includes their social, economic and cultural backgrounds. Studying them needs a certain degree of empathy that is rooted from an understanding and appreciation of their differences including their ways of living (Webber-Pilwax, 2001). In the book Decolonizing Methodologies, Smith subscribed a new agenda and map work for Indigenous research through the decolonization of research methodologies. I involved a more crucial comprehension of the values and motivations that inform the practices of research (Smith, 1999)
The framework for research with Aboriginals in this research will comprise of research strategies, knowledge foundation, established methods, learning and trust. It is important to understand their basic human processes of relating to the transmission of information and generating space for indigenous knowledge that may be alien to the conventional scholarly customs.
Methodology is the means of theorizing the research. It is the measure by which the research goals are achieved, and expectations of commitment among subjects and participants are aligned. It is also the measure for decolonization of both indigenous and non-indigenous participants of the research.
The personal interest on this research arose out of the impending need for the government to decide on important but apparently less prioritized matters as giving back the Aboriginals their lands. The procrastination that governments all over the world, beginning with Australia, is a direct motivation for researchers to provide scholarly backup so that Indigenous people will get the deserved respect by granting them back their lands.
Indigenous Methodologies
There is also a lack of formal education and obvious non acceptance among more established authors that are writing for mainstream media. There is a need to provide literary output on the subject of Indigenous peoples.
Indigenous methods are important because one of main problems that researchers undergo indigenous research is the absence of respect for them as individuals and as peoples. Their worldviews have also not been represented in the educational structures. And educational curricula still lacks the acknowledgement and inclusion of Aboriginal peoples. The acknowledgement and notion of reciprocity is vital not just for Indigenous research but also for Indigenous peoples because it will help them be accountable over their own lives and communities (Kenny, 2000).
Reciprocity is important because it is the mutual understanding of the values and knowledge of the researcher and research subject. It emphasizes the sharing of expertise and knowledge, decision making and ultimate ownership of knowledge. In varied researches, indigenous teachers and leaders were always consulted (Wilson, 2001). Future researches are being planned based on these successful consultations and strong bonds between the researchers and subjects were formed (Graham, 2010).
Reciprocity is in fact one of the four Rs of Indigenous Ethics for research which comprise- Respect, Relevance, Reciprocity and Responsibility. This research will endeavor to respect and honor the basic beliefs and values of Indigenous relationships. This research will find relevance to the issues that are faced by people in general. Reciprocity involves mutual participation of researcher and Aboriginals in the pursuit of information. Responsibility is critical in order to establish and uphold trust between the researcher and the Indigenous peoples.
Indigenous Ethics, Protocols and Etiquettes
Ethics is important in Indigenous research particularly in its design and implementation. What is appropriate is based on the ethics and protocols of the Aboriginals particularly when it comes to cross cultural matters. A main Indigenous Research guideline is the researcher’s accountability with and for who the research is being conducted (Rigner, 1997). Thus this research will endeavor to be responsible, truthful and accurate in recording information. At the same time it be mindful that all actions taken foster responsibility toward the research subject.

The pedagogy that will be followed in this research will involve rediscovering, respect and recovering the culture and traditions of the Aboriginals (Roberts, 1994). This is done in order to reflect their cultures in more truthful matter. The pedagogy will involve the interconnectedness of all living things, the importance of intentions on human beings and communities; the basis of research through Indigenous experience; the theoretical foundation according to Aboriginal epistemology; the transformative research nature; the accountability of keeping the integrity of the Indigenous people and their communities; the acknowledgement of languages and traditions as part of their processes of living.
Indigenous peoples like the Aboriginals have instated canons of etiquette for research. These etiquettes are meant to uphold their rights to be indigenous, to determine their course of existence and to achieve a greater comprehension of the complicated past and present relationships that exist internally and externally between their habitats and human communities.
Each society’s culture follows its peoples’ cosmological worldviews and expresses their ideas of self-identity, principles, customs, geography, protocols, history, and language. Indigenous peoples are essentially rooted to places of origin, particularly their lands. It is Aboriginals’ way of associating their identity and their place here on earth.
In the pursuit of information, asking something from the Indigenous people will actually be an imposition. As such, the researcher will be prepared and willing to offer something in return for the information that the Indigenous people will offer.
The motive of undergoing the complexities of Indigenous research is the fact that it is not a second thought or a unique applied action. It is a function of the whole process of research. It will emphasize the relationship of researchers and participants in all aspects of doing the research to acknowledge the relatedness of both parties and foster reciprocity from each other as well.
Naming the respondents can be an important element in keeping the research cultural and truthful. It is vital for studies in cultural societies to trade historical and genealogical resources. Knowing the sources of information or who is speaking is important. This research will endeavor that its participants will forego anonymity because to foster credibility, truthfulness and integrity. Acknowledging the sources paves the way for more integral inquiry of the research’s cultural processes.
This research will endeavor to seek indigenous wisdom not as indigenous psychology. It should not be a creation of the natural world based on its sound and careful observations. In fact, indigenous wisdom has been tested for many years. This research will be entered into a body knowledge, concepts, tools and methods of learning that are more conducive in addressing the issues that are currently happening in the world.
Research Method
Research method will follow this process: research question identification, research design; assessing the metrics, purposive sampling; institutional approval and permissions; collection of date, and analysis of data.
To answer the overarching research questions, the research design involves conducting qualitative interviews during preset varied activities like dinners, activity gatherings, and observation trips (Taylor & Ward, 2001). The nature of the design is explorative and descriptive in nature, but it will respect and uphold the values of Aboriginals by not being intrusive, or even use a recorded. The method is to spend time with them as often as possible to get the whole perspective of why their lands are important to them.
​ In gathering data, the researcher will honor the values of responsibility and accountability that are expected of the researcher in conducting Indigenous research. As such the researcher will be accountable for the effects of the research study on the lives of the Aboriginal participants. The researcher will also endeavor to make the research beneficial to the Aboriginal community.
The founding premise of the accustomed Indigenous information system is the fact that what maintains human beings are our identity and connections with other living beings, the environment, and agents of creation (Glesne & Perkins, 1992). These connections are established specifically and locally and not just an abstract notion about the connection of living beings. It is a deeply rooted connection that involves specific localities where the ancestries of people are honored. The connection is not also to a collective but to individuals with identities, histories and personalities. That is why in dealing with the Indigenous peoples it is important that to remember that the connection of each individual are unique.
The researcher will endeavor to make decisions through balancing the process of projections. It will endeavor to balance practical issues such as time and budget efficiency with a projective measure of effectiveness and academically adequate result. The objective is to achieve the goal without many modifications from the original research plan. The place of ethics will be prescribed because it will affect the decisions of the researcher who will be basing on the approval of the protocols and customs of the Indigenous peoples participating in the research.

Conclusion
It is important for the researcher to be knowledgeable about their research subject to understand further the nature and intent of the research. It also helps them align with ​ identities and cultures of their subjects and not misinterpret them as inferior. By collaborating with indigenous elders they embed their study with decolonizing methodology. Their rights to govern their own communities and preserve their individualities should not be sacrificed during the research process. They should be able to practice their rights and freedoms to pursue their own economic, political and social developments. These rights which the Indigenous peoples have lost over the years should be given back to them.
Identifying their aspirations and understanding them is a way of letting them tell their stories. Opening up experiences up of experiences through story telling in their choice of setting will provide the researcher with the opportunity to listen. Stories are means of transmitting cultural knowledge that is balanced with the protocols of the community. Being able to listen and take part of such story telling experience will be an advantage to the researcher. As such these intimate gatherings that ignite story telling comprise the design of this research.

References
Douglass, B. & Moustakas, C. (1985). Heuristic Inquiry: The Internal Search to Know. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 23, p.39.
Henry, J., Dunbar, T., Arnott, A., Scrimgeour, M., Matthews, S., Murakami-Gold, L., & Chamberlain, A. (2002). Indigenous research reform agenda: Rethinking research methodologies. Linking Monograph Series: 2. Casuarina: Cooperative Research Centre for Aboriginal Health.
Fredericks, B. (2007). Talking up the research. Journal of Australian Indigenous Issues, 10,(2), 45–53.
Glesne, C., &Peshkin, A. (1992). Becoming qualitative researchers: An introduction (p. 6). White Plains, NY: Longman.
Graham, M. (2010). Understanding Human Agency in Terms of Place: A Proposed Aboriginal
Research Methodology.. PAN: Philosophy Activism Nature, No. 6, 2009: 71-78
Kenny, C. (2000). A sense of place: Aboriginal research as ritual practice. In R. Neil (Ed.), Voice of the drum: Indigenous education and culture (pp. 139– 150). Brandon Manitoba: Kingfisher Publications.
Rigney, L. (1997). Internationalisation of an Indigenous Anti-Colonial Cultural
Critique of research Methodologies: A Guide to Indigenist Research Methodology and its
Principles pp. 109—121
Roberts, D. (1994). Changing the hierarchy of power in Aboriginal research: Towards a more collaborative approach. Kaurna Higher Education Journal, 5, 36.
Smith, L. T. (1999). Decolonising methodologies: Research and indigenous peoples. Zed books
Taylor, R., & Ward, G. (2001). Ethical research and Indigenous Australia, Kaurna Higher Education Journal, 7, pp.15–22
Weber-Pillwax, C. (2001). What is indigenous research? Canadian Journal of Native
Education, 25, pp. 166-174. Retrieved from
Wilson, S. (2001). What is indigenous research methodology? Canadian Journal of Native
Education, 25, pp. 175-179

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