Scholars have identified spirituality in several ways, but there is no generally accepted definition. Scholarly examinations of the different concepts indicate a wide variety of meanings, ranging from a one-dimensional explanation of personal belief in the supernatural world to a more general term. One of them defines spirituality as a search for an intrinsic or sacred significance that transcends the primary aspects of life and a sense of wonder and reverence in the universe. Other researchers who studied spirituality proposed twenty-seven different meanings that differed greatly depending on the context. As a result, conducting rigorous research on spirituality is challenging because it limits both the ability to interpret and communicate results in a meaningful way. Many core features of spirituality are identical to not only spirituality, but as the German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer who was a famous atheist suggested is that spirituality should also be regarded as asceticism, self-transcendence and the recognition of an individual connection with all as a core guide to ethical living.
Ideally, spirituality is embedded in religion which creates a safe, encouraging surrounding in which the spirituality nurtures or grows. Religion is a form of tradition, rites, doctrine, and rituals. Spirituality relates to the content: in other words, the communion with the divine power, perceiving the holy in all creations and objects. In a real sense, this may not always be the case. It is also important to note that spirituality at its worst is the egotism of the individual believer, mindless drivel, or madness (Rockenbach, et. al., 2016).
In the traditional setup, spirituality referred to the religious process relating to the re-formation that aims to restore the original conduct of man, which is the proper orientation to Gods likeness. In the contemporary world, the emphasis has been on the subjective experience of a sacred perspective and the core values and meanings followed by people often in a context differentiate from the organized religious institutions. The modern spirituality includes believing in the supernatural powers, personal growth, religious experience, a quest for a sacred meaning or an encounter with an individuals’ inner dimension (Rockenbach, et. al., 2016).
The plurality of religious cultures and traditions has come to define different characteristics on the different part of the world today. Therefore, what does pluralism mean? Four points can help in explaining this:
Firstly, pluralism does not mean diversity alone, but rather the energetic engagement with diversity. The diversity in the world can and has implied the creation of some religious ghettoes characterized by little traffic among them. In the contemporary world, religious diversity is a constant, but pluralism is not; it refers to an achievement (Rockenbach, et. al., 2015). Diversity alone without a relationship and real encounter will lead to increasing tensions in our communities. Secondly, religious pluralism may refer to an attitude or policy on the diversity of religious beliefs and how they co-exist in the society.
The term ‘scientism’ has been applied to a range of positions concerning science which includes the suggestions that the sole legitimate concern regarding reality is answerable by science to the extent that anything can be understood about reality, science on its own has the capability of providing the insights. Religion critics, spiritualist, New Age and other famous forms of the divine or supernatural beliefs have often been accused of scientism by their scholars, with the accusations that typically involve the thought that critics had crossed a boundary separating those subjects which are the proper province of science.
Postmodernism is a philosophy which postulates that absolute truth is non-existent. Proponents of postmodernism deny a long time belief and the conventions, and they maintain that all suggestions are equally valid. Postmodernism stands for what is right for one group that may not necessarily stand to be right or true for everyone. For instance, the way Christianity teaches about prohibiting sex outside of marriage may be limited to Christians according to Postmodernism (Rockenbach, et. al., 2015).
In the spiritual discussion on the philosophical facts about everyone, there is a construct with which life is viewed. Everyone has something to think about the nature of humans. Even without intentionally thinking about it, they may behave and react to the humankind using a given mindset (Francis, Laycock & Penny, 2016). Whether they are into such kind of thought or not, when the push begins to shove, everyone will believe something concerning what happens after someone life. Personal extinction, or reincarnation, or a transformation into a higher state, or departure to an existence that is shadowy o represents the other side of life after death. Such thoughts, when brought together create an individual’s worldview.
Created in the likeness of God, humans are both a spiritual and corporeal being. They are bound to the external world, and also transcend it. Aside from being a human creature, they are spirits in them. The truth about people is an object of their faith, as is in the biblical truth concerning them. Their history is to realize their purposes by God or the gods, and make a paradise in the world, and prepare for life in community with the holy God, and so forth.
Within a given worldview, the core commitments can vary widely. For instance, a Christian may say, to fulfill God’s will, or first seeking God’s kingdom, or obey God and rejoice in him forever, or devote oneself to knowing God or loving Him. All these will lead to some clear particular understanding of the Christian worldview. A naturalist will say to realize their potential for life experience, to do well for others, or live in a world full of internal peace in a socially diverse world full of conflicts.
Francis, L. J., Laycock, P. J., & Penny, G. (2016). Distinguishing between Spirituality and Religion: Accessing the Worldview Correlates of 13-to 15-year-old Students in England and Wales. Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, Volume 27, 27, 43.
Rockenbach, A. N., Mayhew, M. J., Davidson, J., Ofstein, J., & Bush, R. C. (2015). Complicating universal definitions: how students of diverse worldviews make meaning of spirituality. Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice, 52(1), 1-10.
Rockenbach, A. N., Riggers-Piehl, T. A., Garvey, J. C., Lo, M. A., & Mayhew, M. J. (2016). The influence of campus climate and interfaith engagement on self-authored worldview commitment and pluralism orientation across sexual and gender identities. Research in Higher Education, 57(4), 497.
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