Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

The theme for comparison and contrast is cell division in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The subject has been chosen since living microorganisms are diverse and complex, and it is critical to brainstorm on the basic functional unit of life to carry out the similarities and differences between complex organisms like mammals and simple organisms like bacteria. The paper focuses on explaining the thought of prokaryote and eukaryotes, their shared similarities, and the different mechanisms of cell divisions adopted by the two classes of living organisms.
Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes are living organisms that inhabit the earth. The two types of organisms have numerous similarities and notable differences. Prokaryotes refer to unicellular organisms that do not have a cell nucleus or membrane-bound organelles. Some prokaryotes are multi-cellular. Eukaryotes are multi-cellular organisms that have cells which are divided into complex structures by the cytoskeleton and internal membranes. The nucleus is the main definitive structure of prokaryotes since it gives them their name. Both Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes undergo cell division to produce daughter cells. The process of cell division differs. Prokaryotes undergo a simple cell division while eukaryotes undergo a complex cell division process. Prokaryotes do not undergo mitosis or meiosis. They divide through the process called binary fission. Unlike prokaryotic cells, the cell division of eukaryotes is more complex. The cells of eukaryotes divide through the process of mitosis to produce different cells, and sexually through meiosis to produce identical daughter cells (O’Donnell, Langston & Stillman, 2013). The replication process of eukaryotes is more complex as compared to prokaryotes since they are complicated organisms. Binary fission occurs in prokaryotes and mitosis occurs in eukaryotes.

Cellular reproduction is based on the process of managing the replication of genetic material. A control mechanism is vital in ensuring that the DNA and cellular components are equally distributed to new cells. Binary fission is based on a simple bipolar filament in which there is the segregation of the newly formed DNA to the opposite sides of a prokaryotic cell. Mitosis entails a complex spindle structure in separating the nuclei structures of the daughter cell (Löwe & Amos, 2009).

Mitosis comprises of five separate stages that include prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase and cytokinesis. The prophase phase is characterized by the following: chromatic condensation; dissolution of the nuclear envelope; the migration and division of centrioles; and the formation of kinetochore fibers and spindle. During metaphase, the migration of the chromosome to the equator of the spindle occurs. The spindle becomes attached to the kinetochore fiber during metaphase. The following occurs during anaphase: separation of the centromeres; the pulling of the chromosomes to the opposing poles of the spindle. The chromosomes reach their poles in telophase. The following processes also occur during telophase: the reformation of the nuclear envelope; the uncoiling of the chromosomes to form chromatin; and the reformation of the nucleolus. Cytokinesis is the last phase of mitosis in which the splitting of the new cells occurs. The cytoplasm is split during the process, and the allocation of organelles such as the Golgi bodies takes place into each new cell Mileykovskaya & Dowhan, 2009).). 

Binary fission is simple processes that occur in prokaryotic cells. The chromosome of prokaryotes is a single DNA molecule. Binary fission is characterized by the replication of the DNA molecule, and subsequent attachment of each copy of the DNA to the cell membrane. The separation of the original and replicated chromosomes occurs when the cells pull apart. The cell eventually splits apart through the process of cytokinesis. Mitosis is a complex procedure that occurs in eukaryotes, and it involves five stages.

References

Löwe, J., & Amos, L. A. (2009). Evolution of cytomotive filaments: the cytoskeleton from

prokaryotes to eukaryotes. The international journal of biochemistry & cell

biology, 41(2), 323-329..

Mileykovskaya, E., & Dowhan, W. (2009). Cardiolipin membrane domains in prokaryotes and

eukaryotes. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Biomembranes, 1788(10), 2084-2091

O’Donnell, M., Langston, L., & Stillman, B. (2013). Principles and concepts of DNA replication

in bacteria, archaea, and eukarya. Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology, 5(7),

a010108.

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