Physical Anthropology of Non-human Monkeys

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Primates are groups of monkeys, apes and humans who are undoubtedly the foremost developed and intelligent of all mammals. Apes especially are the simplest to review thanks to their many similarities to citizenry such as: large brain capacity, their sociability, communicating verbally and their ability to steer bipedally. Their likeness to humans has been utilized in anthropology to review human genetic evolution and their bio-cultural variations. as an example , Darwin used remains of apes to elucidate human evolution.
Apes have a more projected face which is additionally long in comparison to human faces with an outsized brow ridge. Their teeth on the front are larger than those in the back of the mouth and their jaws are also large. They will usually exhibit quadruple posture causing their foramen magnum to be posteriorly placed. Furthermore, they have large chest that help to maintain stability for quadrapedalism backed by c-shaped spine which inhibits them from standing upright for extensive periods unlike human beings. Their feet are flat with an opposable big toe to enhance their grip and motor skills (Fleagle, 111). Unlike humans, their arms are strong and longer than their leg’s length and they extend all the way to their ankles since they spend most of their lives on trees and feed from trees. Gorillas especially have very strong arms whose strength would be compared to six adult men. Just like humans, apes have incisors, canines, premolars and molars.

To adapt to their environment, gorillas and other apes will form groups of up to 12 members with a silverback, being the largest male in the group leading the rest. They often develop expressions like anger as well as body language to scare off their predators. Their long arms and short legs have enabled apes to survive in the dense African forests by maintaining a quadrupedal posture that reduces stress on their bones and joints since they are very heavy (Kingdon, 41). They also have opposable thumbs as well as opposable big toes which helps them to tightly hold their offspring and aids them when climbing trees to gather fruits or build nests. Large eyes that face forward and are close together helps apes to maintain brilliant depth perception when climbing trees. Moreover, their stereoscopic vision enables them to detect predators and poachers whom they scare off by using their loud roars. Living in the forest makes apes herbivorous and they have flat teeth that grinds on the plants they feed on and bacteria that breaks down cellulose. Mountain apes have dark long thick hair that helps to keep them warm as well as camouflage in the deep forest.

More often they survive on plant leaves, stems and roots which constitutes to 17% of their diet, 3% of their diet will include termites and the other 67% includes fruits. They usually obtain their food by shredding apart vegetation. An adult ape will break up a banana plant to get to the succulent inner bit (Gruen, 74). For communication they will use gestures such as repeatedly hitting their chest using their hands and facial expressions like an angry face to show discontent.

From the analysis, it is clear that anthropology enables us to understand evolutionary changes in human anatomy it also helps to understand the similarities that exists between apes and humans. The essay describes the behavior and physiological set up of apes, and how anthropology helps us understand its behaviors.

Works Cited

Fleagle, John G. Primate Adaptation and Evolution. , 2013. Internet resource.ternet resource

Gruen, Lori. The Ethics of Captivity. , 2014. Print.

Kingdon, Jonathan, and David Happold. Mammals of Africa. London: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2013. Internet resource.

Tuttle, Russell H. Apes and Human Evolution. , 2014. Print.


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