overview of the literature gathered from articles

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The aim of this paper is to offer a review of the literature gathered from publications focusing on type 2 diabetes. It includes the primary objective and nature of each paper, the relevance and meaning of the article to diabetes type 2, any bias contained in the listed article, conclusions, and a rundown of the article’s key points.
Diabetes type 2 is a chronic disease that affects millions of people worldwide. In certain types of diabetes type 2, the progression of the disease is aided by insufficient physical activity and obesity. Every year, approximately 3.4 million deaths are recorded around the world. Out of the total deaths, about 10% is caused by gestation and diabetes mellitus. Diabetes type 2 is managed by monitoring and controlling the blood sugar level, and living a healthy lifestyle.

Article 1

Chau, T. K., Fong, D. T., Chan, S. C., Wong, J. H., Li, W. C., Tan, K. B., & Lam, T. H. (2015). Misconceptions about smoking in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A qualitative analysis, 2545-2553. doi:10.1111/jocn.12854

The chief purpose and scope of this study are to substantiate information on the various misconceptions advanced on smoking patients who happen to have type 2 diabetes mellitus. The study focuses on patients who have type 2 diabetes, and they are or were smokers. In brief description, the study uses a qualitative design that helps in achieving its primary purpose. The participants of the study had been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus in two major local hospitals, and they had a long history of smoking (Chau, et al., 2015). The study used 22 people who were smoking at the time; with other 20 being ex-smokers but all of them had type 2 diabetes mellitus. The value and significance of the study are to explain clearly about smoking behaviors, the various known perceptions about smoking cessation, and the conditions that are linked with the idea of quitting smoking amongst the people with type 2 diabetes. The study’s bias is that it does not explain the source of the misconceptions and how to handle them. It was observed that the participants who were smoking at the time claimed that they had failed to quit smoking due to misconceptions associated with diabetes and smoking, hazards related to quitting smoking, and due to their dissatisfaction with their current health condition (Chau, et al., 2015). Ex-smokers claimed that they had stopped smoking due to advice from health officers, and support from their families. Chau, et al. (2015) suggest that smoking cessation is challenging due to psychological addiction and weight gain, which follow later. In summary, the points of the study are explaining how misconceptions on quitting smoking lead to a negative attitude towards quitting smoking for smokers with type 2 diabetes. Further, the study asserts that the quitting process amongst people with type 2 diabetes is challenging due to psychological addiction, weight gain that comes after quitting smoking, and influence from smoking peers (Chau, et al., 2015).

Article 2

Følling, I. S., Solbjør, M., Midthjeli, K., Kulseng, B., & Helvik, A. (2016). Exploring lifestyle and risk in preventing type 2 diabetes. A nested qualitative study of older participants in a lifestyle intervention program (VEND-RISK)(161-9). doi:10.1186/s12889-016-3559-y

The primary purpose and scope of this study are to investigate the lifestyle of seniors and the risks that are associated with type 2 diabetes- through a qualitative study. The article limits itself to the study of the older people who have type 2 diabetes. In brief description, the authors emphasize that the kind of lifestyle lived by an individual may contribute to reducing the onset of type 2 diabetes, especially amongst the people with probabilities of risk factors known to cause the diabetic condition. The nested study was carried, and 26 participants took part in the intervention program. The study considered the participants who had previously participated in other studies such as HUNT3 and HUNT DE-PLAN where their potential of becoming developing type 2 diabetes had been verified. The collected information was taken through the systematic text condensation analysis (Følling et. al, 2016). The value and significance of the study are that it emphasizes the understanding of the effect of providing the resources required for living an active lifestyle and being placed in a condition where the risk of developing type 2 diabetes is high. Active lifestyle comprises of accessing a family, being in a social network and possessing a positive attitude towards life. Conditions of being at risk of becoming diabetic included worries and ambitions that are related to health (Følling et. al, 2016). The study is biased in that it only focuses on the older people who have type 2 diabetes in its intervention program, instead of all both old and younger people with type 2 diabetes. It was observed that being able to access various resources could help in improving the results obtained from lifestyle intervention programs. Perception of risk and history of a family can be used as preventive techniques to improve changes in the lifestyle of a person (Følling et al., 2016). In summary, the main points of the study understand the effect of providing to seniors an active lifestyle and being placed in a situation where it is possible to develop type 2 diabetes.

Article 3

McDonald, J., Jayasuriya, R., & Harris, M. F. (2012). The influence of power dynamics and trust on multidisciplinary collaboration. a qualitative case study of type 2 diabetes mellitus, 11. Retrieved from http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6963/12/63

The main purpose and scope of this study are to explain the influence of power dynamics and trust on the association between the health practitioners who are concerned with the management of diabetes and their effect on the experiences of the patient. In brief description, the authors focus on a thematic approach which is facilitated by a two-level coding scheme, combined with cross-case comparisons. What has affected the level at which they trust or mistrust one another is the vulnerability and uncertainty that is associated with the dynamics in the profession? The value and significance of the study are to show that appropriate choices made by the health professional are strongly affected by power dynamics and trust. The cooperation amongst organizations and their boundaries was still a great challenge (McDonald, Jayasuriya & Harris, 2012). The study is biased in that it only focuses on the power dynamics and trust amongst health practitioners, but does not provide solutions that should be taken to address the situation. It was observed that health practitioners use power at their disposal to protect their autonomy, the power relations between professionals in the private and public sectors, and reduce their dependency on their colleagues to retain their power (McDonald, Jayasuriya & Harris, 2012). Also, it was observed that there is little cooperation between the health professionals even though the government has already drafted policies to ensure they make decisions as a team. The interaction between trust and role discernments was found to exceed their professional identity. Further, what determined the level of trust was how the professionals related to each other. It was concluded that there is a shift in the roles and function limits amongst the health professionals (McDonald, Jayasuriya & Harris, 2012). In summary, the main points of the study are to inspect the power dynamics and trust levels amongst the health practitioners. The study explores how health professionals relate to each other.

Article 4

Muchiri, J., Gericke, G., & Rheeder, P. (2016). Subject’s experiences of a nutrition education programme. a qualitative study of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus living in a rural resource-limited setting in South Africa (29(2)), 83-89.

The main purpose and scope of this study are to explore the experiences and perspectives of the adults living with type 2 diabetes. The study limits itself to adult people with type 2 diabetes living in suburb areas. In brief description, the authors used an interpretive phenomenological design. The nutrition education intervention was a one-year randomized trial. The response was based on assessing the education needs on the topic of nutrition and education materials on nutrition was provided. At the end of eight weeks and the 12th month, data was collected. The study incorporated open-ended and self-administered questionnaires, and using the framework thematic analysis technique; five focus groups were engaged (Muchiri, Gericke & Rheeder, 2016). The value and significance of the study are that it shows experiences that a nutrition education program can bring to people with type 2 diabetes living in the rural areas. Also, the study shows that customized nutrition tutelage could bring about program fulfillment and professed benefits (Muchiri, Gericke & Rheeder, 2016). The bias of the study is that it focuses on the adult people with type 2 diabetes who reside in the rural areas whereas there can be young people with the same health condition and they live in the rural areas.

The observations from the study were that the participants enjoyed studying the nutrition education regarding the content and how it is delivered. The participants benefited by gaining knowledge and skills on health, how to change diet, and through improvement of family’s health and support (Muchiri, Gericke & Rheeder, 2016). Participants recommended that the same program should be administered to other people with type 2 diabetes. The characteristics that triggered positive reactions amongst the participants were competence, being approachable, having respect, and being patient. In summary, the main points of the study are the experiences of the adult with type 2 diabetes who live in the rural areas, and the impact of the nutrition education program to such patients.

Article 5

Wheelock, K. M., Sinha, M., Knowler, W. C., Nelson, R. G., Fufaa, G. D., & Hanson, R. L. (2016). Metabolic Risk Factors and Type 2 Diabetes Incidence in American Indian Children. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 2015-4309. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2015-4309

The primary motivation behind the article is to evaluate four metabolic hazards considers as indicators of type 2 diabetes and figure out if the risk contrasts amongst more young and older kids. The review was completed because there is restricted accessible information on how metabolic hazard components amid youth influence the long haul danger of type 2 diabetes. The study was carried out between 1965 and 2007, and the participants were progressively assessed for the development of the diabetic condition. The measurements that were majorly used include body mass index (BMI), serum cholesterol, blood glucose, and blood pressure. Two groups participated in the exercise, ages 5-11 and 12- 19 years. The study was carried out in the Gila River Indian community found in Arizona. The research discovered that diabetes occurrence was higher in children who were overweight and the diabetes risk factors were higher in younger children aged 5-11 years. The study concluded that BMI and impaired glucose management in children is a strong indicator of type 2 diabetes.

Article 6

Sylvia, H. L., & Hu, F. B. (2016). Contributors of the Nurse’s Health Studies to Uncovering Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes: Diet, Lifestyle, Biomarkers, and Genetics. American Journal of Public Health, 106(9), 1624-1630.

The study was as a review of the contributions nurses have made in addressing the risk factors for type 2 diabetes. A review of Nurse’s Health Study (NHS) and NHS II publications between 1976 and 2016 was carried out. The NHS and NHS II have revealed essential parts in type 2 diabetes for individual supplements, sustenance, dietary examples, and physical movement free of abundance body weight. Up to 90% of type 2 diabetes cases are possibly preventable if people take after a sound eating regimen and way of life. The NHS examinations have additionally distinguished novel biomarkers for diabetes, including adipokines, fiery cytokines, nourishment metabolites, and natural contaminations, offering new bits of knowledge into the pathophysiology of the malady. Worldwide cooperative endeavors have revealed numerous regular hereditary variations connected with type 2 diabetes and enhanced our comprehension of gene–environment collaborations. Proceeded with endeavors to distinguish epigenetic, metagenomic, and metabolomics chance elements for type 2 diabetes can uncover new pathways and enhance expectation and anticipation. Conclusions. In the course of recent decades, the NHS and NHS II have made real commitments to general wellbeing proposals and methodologies intended to lessen the worldwide weight of diabetes.

Article 7

Davis, W. A., Zilkens, R. R., Starkstein, S. E., Davis, T. M., & Bruce, D. G. (January, 2017). Dementia onset, incidence and risk in type 2 diabetes. A matched cohort study with the Fremantle Diabetes Study Phase I, 60(1), 89-97.

The review planned to survey the rate, time of onset, survival and relative danger of dementia in a very much classified group based patients with type 2 diabetes contrasted and a coordinated companion of people without diabetes. A longitudinal observational review was embraced including 1291 members with type 2 diabetes from the Fremantle Diabetes Study and 5159 coordinated inhabitants without recorded diabetes. Linkage with wellbeing related databases was utilized to identify episode dementia. Relative dangers were surveyed using both cause-particular and subdistribution corresponding perils models. Amid 13.8 ± 5.8 years of development, incident dementia happened in 13.9% and 12.4% of the gatherings of members with and without diabetes, separately (p = 0.15). With type 2 diabetes, the occurrence of dementia was higher (rate proportion [IRR] 1.28, 95% CI 1.08, 1.51), just like the contending danger of death (IRR 1.50, 95% CI 1.38, 1.64). The ages when dementia was initially recorded and when demise with dementia happened were both before with diabetes, by 1.7 (95% CI 0.6, 2.9) and 2.3 (95% CI 1.1, 3.6) years, individually (both p ≤ 0.004). Type 2 diabetes was connected with a balanced subdistribution HR of 1.18 (95% CI 1.00, 1.39), and a cause-particular HR of 1.51 (95% CI 1.27, 1.78) for all-cause dementia. Type 2 diabetes is connected with an expanded rate of dementia, and dementia onset happens at a more youthful age. The relative dangers of both dementia and untimely mortality are expanded and, as a result, the expanded risk of dementia in type 2 diabetes is not as set apart as recommended by cause-particular HRs.

References

Chau, T. K., Fong, D. T., Chan, S. C., Wong, J. H., Li, W. C., Tan, K. B., & Lam, T. H. (2015). Misconceptions about smoking in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A qualitative analysis, 2545-2553. doi:10.1111/jocn.12854

Davis, W. A., Zilkens, R. R., Starkstein, S. E., Davis, T. M., & Bruce, D. G. (January, 2017). Dementia onset, incidence and risk in type 2 diabetes. A matched cohort study with the Fremantle Diabetes Study Phase I, 60(1), 89-97.

Følling, I. S., Solbjør, M., Midthjeli, K., Kulseng, B., & Helvik, A. (2016). Exploring lifestyle and risk in preventing type 2 diabetes. A nested qualitative study of older participants in a lifestyle intervention program (VEND-RISK)(161-9). doi:10.1186/s12889-016-3559-y

McDonald, J., Jayasuriya, R., & Harris, M. F. (2012). The influence of power dynamics and trust on multidisciplinary collaboration. a qualitative case study of type 2 diabetes mellitus, 11. Retrieved from http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6963/12/63.

Muchiri, J., Gericke, G., & Rheeder, P. (2016). Subject’s experiences of a nutrition education programme. a qualitative study of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus living in a rural resource-limited setting in South Africa(29(2)), 83-89.

Sylvia, H. L., & Hu, F. B. (2016). Contributors of the Nurse’s Health Studies to Uncovering Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes: Diet, Lifestyle, Biomarkers, and Genetics. American Journal of Public Health, 106(9), 1624-1630.

Wheelock, K. M., Sinha, M., Knowler, W. C., Nelson, R. G., Fufaa, G. D., & Hanson, R. L. (2016). Metabolic Risk Factors and Type 2 Diabetes Incidence in American Indian Children. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 2015-4309. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2015-4309.

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