Both nature and nurture impact human development, however, scholars have not been able to come to a conclusive settlement on the degree which each of these factors impacts human development. Nature is concerned with factors that are inherited genetically therefore in this case human conduct is influenced by factors that are biological elements that are already present at birth. Nurture on the other hand involves environmental factors, the place human behavior is influenced by the interaction with their environment.
Nature can be damaged down into additive and non-additive factors which affect human development. Nurture on the other hand is subdivided into shared environmental factors that are child upbringing strategies, the level of income, and such common characteristics that are shared by relatives. Unshared environmental factors are components that are characteristics shared by persons that are not related in any way such as peer influence that causes differences in behavior from one person to another (Steen, Grant, and Springer pg50).
In the earlier years of child development, the effect of these two factors is critical to the development of behavior. The developing mind of a child the biogenetic uniqueness brought about by the gene is influenced by the environmental factors, which therefore triggers the development of behavior in the person (Harold, Gordon, et al pg1040).
According to (Harold, Gordon et al 2013 pg 1045), In the earlier years of child development, the effect of these two factors is critical to the development of behavior. The developing mind of a child the biogenetic uniqueness brought about by the gene is influenced by the environmental factors, which therefore triggers the development of behavior in the person.
These two factors are inseparable on the influence that they have on human development and it is hard to study one without referring to the other. On one hand, genetics that makes us learn to remember and imitate therefore enabling us to absorb culture from the environment and intern the culture we absorb from the environment shapes the behavior and character as we develop. Therefore, these two factors cannot be separated from each other (Kandler, Christian pg293).
It has been argued by various scholars that nurture plays a bigger role in shaping human behavior, however, with the presence of the environment and absence of the ability to imitate, think and learn then it would be impossible for one to learn and imitate from the environment. Each of this factors, therefore, plays a significant role in human development (Coll, Cynthia Garcia, Elaine, and Richard pg15).
Nature, on the other hand, exists before we are born and nurture does not exist before we are born. It can be said that nurture only takes effect on human development after one has been exposed to the environment and nature has played its role in the process of human development. Therefore, the difference in individual development can be attributed to environmental influence on human development on the other hand, however; people tend to have different personalities and interests in spite of living in the same environment and culture this is because of the difference in the genetic structure. (Geiger, Terrence, and Sharyn 237).
In the cases of adoption studies, it has been proven that children that have been adopted have a biological resemblance to their blood relatives whom they share gene, after they are adopted and assimilated into other environments that are new homes and families, they have tenancies to adapt and transform their behavior and learn behavior from their surrounding environment. This therefore proves that nature and nurture have an equal task in human development just as this adoption cases have proven the development of this children that are adopted is impacted by these two factors on the same level that is that one cannot cause development independent of the other (Tucker-Drob, Elliot, and Daniel pg 949).
Other scholars, however, have disputed the fact that both these factors influence individual development in the same degree. According to this scholars, nurture plays the most significant role in the development of human beings and causes them to have a difference in character. By an individual practicing to adapt to his or her environment then they get better and therefore improving human development. They have argued that nurture plays a more important role in individual development because, in the earlier stages of growth, nurture has an influence on the nature that eventually causes the development and growth of talents therefore according to this scholar it plays a more significant role in individual development than nature (Singh, Ilina pg 311).
The other view of this is that nature has more influence than nurture. According to this theory, how we are put together in terms of our genes determines how we develop and grow. A study don between males and females has suggested that females have tendencies to be better at languages in comparison to males and the males tend to be better at science and more technical studies in comparison to the females. This can be accounted for the difference brought about by nature, therefore, showing that the underlying differences in human development are caused by nature rather than by nurture (Eagly, Alice, and Wendy pg 349).
My conclusion from the above study of the impact of nature and nurture on individual development is that they both have a significant role to play in human development. One cannot impact development being independent of the other. The studies and experiments that have been conducted to prove the impact of this factors on development interdependently or independently have made a strong case and proven beyond reasonable doubt that for there to be any development in a human being then these two factors must interact to bring about the character and personality of the person as a whole (Singh, Ilina pg 318).
Coll, Cynthia Garcia, Elaine L. Bearer, and Richard M. Lerner, eds. Nature and nurture: The complex interplay of genetic and environmental influences on human behavior and development. Psychology Press, 2014.7-21
Eagly, Alice H., and Wendy Wood. “Nature–nurture debates: 25 years of challenges in understanding the psychology of gender.” Perspectives on Psychological Science 8.3 (2013): 340-357.
Geiger, Terrence L., and Sharyn Tauro. “Nature and nurture in Foxp3+ regulatory T cell development, stability, and function.” Human immunology 73.3 (2012): 232-239.
Harold, Gordon T., et al. “Biological and rearing mother influences on child ADHD symptoms: revisiting the developmental interface between nature and nurture.” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 54.10 (2013): 1038-1046.
Kandler, Christian. “Nature and nurture in personality development: The case of neuroticism and extraversion.” Current Directions in Psychological Science 21.5 (2012): 290-296.
Singh, Ilina. “Human development, nature and nurture: Working beyond the divide.” BioSocieties 7.3 (2012): 308-321.
Steen, R. Grant. DNA and destiny: Nature and nurture in human behavior. Springer, 2013.40-67
Tucker-Drob, Elliot M., and Daniel A. Briley. “Continuity of genetic and environmental influences on cognition across the life span: A meta-analysis of longitudinal twin and adoption studies.” Psychological Bulletin 140.4 (2014): 949.