Dr. Giuntini describes cutting-edge in romanticism, a philosophical, literary and artistic movement that emphasizes creativeness and emotions (Giuntini and Jean-Marie 9). According to her, modernism falls between the time frame from 1850 to 1960 which commenced motion of the realist and ended with the abstract. She argues that some of the important features shared by way of modern societies include;
It is the process the place people exchange labor for wages and use such salary to acquire consumer objects on the contrary to producing their own. According to her, the industrial revolution has changed the socio-economic relationships to provide recurrent consumer goods and commodities altering the education notion believed. It focuses on opposition and progress influencing the society.
According to Dr. Giuntini, urban culture replaced the Agrarian culture through the growth and development of cities. The growing cities happened to be the sites of new wealth and the offered opportunities in most industries, manufacturing, and processing firms. When people moved from small towns to search growing cities, they broke the traditional culture and values and new cultures evolved due to interactions (McMichael 298) such as prostitution, alienation, and depersonalization. Personal relationships gave out as cities expand daily, both economically and structurally.
Dr. Giuntini argues that technological advances have changed a lot since the agrarian revolution. The changes are noticed regarding industrialization, infrastructural developments on housing, roads, and railway networking, scientific innovations among others. She notes that these changes have affected societal lives, relationships and their reasoning capacities with others (Giuntini and Jean-Marie 9). The people in industrialized era saw themselves as being progressive and modern as compared to the regressive, primitive and underdeveloped cultures (Giddens 4). Today’s modernity and future tend to increase risks such as the nuclear weaponry and misunderstandings of different nations.
Secularity and optimism
The modern society saw changes in a positive way and welcomed innovation and inventions. The religious systems too did not state their standards that made the modern societies to be secular unlike the traditional culture (Giuntini and Jean-Marie 9). This focused on a personal and individual relationship with God.
Modernity has been seen in the context of capitalism, development in technology, exchange, and advancement of cultures, norms and values and also in human reasoning. It’s, therefore, true to say that modernism is still going on as these improvements pop in every day. What seemed to be new today becomes the past as things and innovation advances. Dr. Giutini’s definition hence is similar to today’s understanding of modernity.
Giddens, Anthony. Modernity and self-identity: Self and society in the late modern age. Stanford University Press, 1991.
Giuntini, Parme, and Jean-Marie Venturini. “Highjacking the MOOC: Reflections on Creating/Teaching an Art History MOOC.” Current Issues in Emerging eLearning 2.1 (2015)
McMichael, Philip. Development and Social Change: A Global Perspective: A Global Perspective. Sage Publications, 2011.