The military decision-making method is one that rapidly establishes a very tactical and detailed approach that allows the military to excel in a mission. The success of the assignment is closely connected to the willingness of workers to enforce the military decision-making process. The time in the training centers is typically limited and the trainees prefer to omit the MDMP because of this fact. There are different types of decision making that are scalable, logical, and very intuitive. Such techniques require observation, decision-making orientation, and acting. History correlates the victories and defeats with the quality of the situation and the decisions taken in readiness by the military commander. Decision making usually involves if to decide what to choose and when to decide. This process helps the commander and staff in establishing the situation on the battlefield. The MDMP helps the ruler and staff to have a clear picture of the situation and come up with a thorough and precise judgment on assessing the situation. The commander and the staff usually combine forces in trying a much as possible in accomplishing a mission. The process of military decision-making process usually takes seven steps namely receipt of a mission, mission analysis, course of action development, the course of action analysis, the course of action comparison course of action approval, and, finally, order production. The commander works in close collaboration with staff NCOs to ensure a perfect accomplishment of the mission.
Key words: decision making, success, mission, commander, staff.
Military Decision-Making Process
The MDMP begins with receiving of a new mission. It may come from the highest headquarters or as a result of the ongoing operation. The reason and purpose of this step are to alert the relevant participants in the MDMP. Due to this warning, the members prepare the planning requirements, come up with the amount of time available for planning the mission, and find out the necessary approach in executing the responsibility. The commanders and staff perform tasks and actions and produce outputs (Neumann, 2001).
The mission analysis is very crucial and important element in the MDMP; it helps the commander to look out for what is going to happen on the battlefield. This process involves seventeen main steps these process include: taking part in elementary Intelligence, doing ground work on the Battlefield (IPB), evaluate stated, Implied and Essential Tasks the fourth step is the reviewing of the available assets and identifying resource shortfalls. This action is entirely filled by the commander and staff considering the relationships among the essential, specified and implied tasks hence they put in place the assets needed to accomplish all tasks.
Step 5 involves the determination of constraints these constraints are placed to subordinates.
The next one includes identifying essential facts and developing assumptions. These facts are the truths about the mission therefore by developing assumptions help the commander to plan and decide on the future course of action.
Other steps in this process include the beginning of the composite risk management, development of Initial commander`s requirement (CCIR) and Essential elements of friendly information (EEFI). Developing initial reconnaissance and surveillance R&S synchronization Tools is another step. Also, the development of the initial R&S plan is very necessary, updating plan for the use of the available time is also very important. The development of the original themes and messages, problem statement, mission statement and presentation of the mission analysis briefing is also very crucial. It is also important to develop and issue the initial intention of the cd and a; also the developing and issuing initial planning guidance. The next step is developing a course of action evaluation criteria and finally issuing a warning order (McChrystal, 2015.)
Course of Action Development
The course of action development is a very broad solution to an identified problem. Relevant people use the problem statement, mission statement, the commander`s intent, the planning guidance, and all the information got from the mission analysis.
The course of action development involves eight tasks; assessing the relative combat power also there is the generation of options to be used in the entire process. Next is the arraying of forces and developing a broad concept which describes the arrayed forces and what they will accomplish in the mission. The next step is assigning the headquarters to a group of troops. The course of action statements and sketches is also prepared which will clearly portray how the unit will accomplish the mission. After conducting the course of action report, the staff briefs them to the commander, and henceforth they select and modify the course of action for continued analysis (Burleson, 2000).
Course Actions Analysis
This process starts by gathering of the tools such estimates, events templates, completed COA including graphics and maps. The next step involves the listing of all friendly forces and listing all the assumptions. The known critical events and decision points are also listed. Therefore, when all these processes have been put in place, a war gaming method is selected. The selection of technique record and display is very crucial at this stage. Henceforth the commander and staff fighting game the operation and assess the results. Finally, in this process is to conduct war game briefing.
Course of Action Comparison
This is a very critical process because it uses a technique called a decision matrix. This decision model uses the evaluation criteria developed during the mission analysis. This step is important because it helps the commander to make the beat decisions. It involves the following tasks: conducting advantages and disadvantages of the analysis, it also compares the COAs, and finally helps in the conduction of a COA decision briefing.
The Course of Action Approval
The commander selects COA to be used in the accomplishment of the mission. This COA should be the best. This happens after evaluating the products from the COA briefing. In this step the commander has some options to follow namely: selecting the best COA, rejecting COA, modifying the COA, and providing a new COA (Morse, 2001).
The selected COA is turned into a concept of operations hence the staff prepares the order and the required information. In this perspective, the COA is the concept of operations for the entire plan. The sketches are the basis for the action. Due to this fact, the execution of the mission is possible because orders contain all the information needed by the commander. Therefore, without the approval of the commander, the staff cannot reproduce and give them out to the subordinates. When the assistants receive the higher orders, they acknowledge them with immediate effect. Later, the commander and staff conduct confirmation briefings.
The staff NCO will efficiently effect the follow-on missions by providing certain services which include requesting many aircraft the crew that will take care of the planes and also airlifts. During missions, the aircraft move from one place to another. Therefore, the fuel may be finished in their planes, the staff NCO provides aerial fueling. This increases the efficiency of the missions because the plane cannot land since this is wastage of time (Burleson, 2000).
Troop leading procedures plans and prepares for operations in the smaller units. This process is similar to MDMP but not identical. Its use by smaller group leaders to analyze a mission, develop a plan, and prepare for operations. The core principal is that the TLP uses MDMP as their planning process. The process also involves eight steps namely:
• Receive the mission
• Issue a warning order
• Make a plan about the mission
• Initiate movement
• Conducting a reconnaissance
• Complete with the plan
• Issue order
• Supervise and refine.
Let us focus on step number eight, i.e., monitoring and refining. The leaders in the TLP usually monitor the mission preparations and plans and refine them. The leaders in this process supervise the subordinates and inspect their personnel and equipment. By doing so, they are preparing for rehearsals which are very important. These rehearsals help in identifying the problems in the plan. Also, the rehearsals help soldiers in understanding the concept of operations. In term of confidence, the rehearsals are a vital role in giving it to soldiers. Rehearsals also assist in the coordination of subordinate element actions (Pax, Dyrlund, & Tucker, 2012).
The following are the roles of the assistant chief of staff, G-3 (S-3). He portrays the friendly scheme of maneuver, and also ensures the subordinate unit actions and acting according to the intention of the commander. He also provides the participants with the current intelligence. He is the one who assesses the enemy`s course of action. The G OR S gives out the factors that may complicate the accomplishment of the mission. And he gives out the ideas and considerations to be made in operation (George, Grant, Jabro, & Skovira, 2008).
The MDMP is a very critical and crucial process since it helps commanders and staff in the accomplishment and the execution o f the mission successfully. The steps involved are essential because they guide the commander and staff in their time of decisions. The decisions usually come from the high command headquarters. This is the highest form of authority in the hierarchy of the decision makers. Therefore, command posts are created for proper and passing of information from the commanders to the brigades and troops. In the proper accomplishment of the mission, every relevant body must cooperate sufficiently.
Burleson III, W. M. (2000). Mission analysis during future military operations on urbanized terrain. ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLL FORT LEAVENWORTH KS.
George, L., Grant, A. J., Jabro, A. D., & Skovira, R. J. (2008). Synchronizing knowledge in military decision making: A research approach for exploring the effects of organizational culture. Information Systems IX (2).
McChrystal, G. S. A. (2015). US Military Operations: Law, Policy, and Practice. G. S. Corn, R E. VanLandingham, & S. R. Reeves (Eds.). Oxford University Press.
Morse, C. M. T. (2001). Department of the Army.
Neumann, J. T. (2001). The Military Decision Making Process and the Battle of the LittlBighorn . MARINE CORPS COMMAND AND STAFF COLL QUANTICO VA.
Pax, E. V., Dyrlund, A., & Tucker, J. S. (2012). Junior Leader Training Development in Operational Units. NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORP KILLEEN TX TECHNICAL SERVICES.