Why did you pick out this disease for research? If you know any individual with this disease/condition, consult him/her for their input.
There are several matters which have made me choose this disease on my research. Tuberculosis which is essentially abbreviated as TB has remained to be the most recent worldwide challenges in health. This is due to the fact it has been ranked as the number two leading infectious dying cause. It is also the most disease which inflicts a lot of burdens on the affected person in the world. There was about an incidence of 9.0 million reported new instances of tuberculosis and one million and a half deaths in the year 2014. This is all about estimation. Another thing that drives me into this research on this disease is because some things need to be addressed so as to improve the whole control thing. In simple, tuberculosis needs better tools so as its control can be effective.
To get to know the latent TB infection and also the perseverance of infection that is after the treatment is made is the most important thing. According to the new markers discovery of tuberculosis for a low or even high danger individuals, in terms of growth of this disease and its competence of treatment, would allow determination that is based to the evidence of who to make the treatment, how to make this treatment and also the time span on how to make treatment of both prevention and the cure. Another thing that has also made me choose Tuberculosis is to make something known to even the most ordinary person. The important barrier in the extensive treatment of the latent infection of Tuberculosis as a health interference of the public is the incapability to make the prediction on the consequent course of any individual. Another thing is the nonappearance of an authenticated model of an animal which is meant to test the latest drugs and vaccine treatments or therapies. The knowledge which is also available on the host and bacterial factors which are effectively required for the entry into and also the exit from dormancy is limited. All these and more things are supposed to be known by each and every induvial and therefore, I decided to concentrate on Tuberculosis in my research.
What is the disease? Define it.
The disease of my research is Tuberculosis (TB). TB is basically a contagious infection which commonly attacks the lungs. It is also believed that it can also spread to the other body parts, like the spine and brain. TB is caused by a type of bacteria which is known as the Mycobacterium tuberculosis. According to several past types of research, TB was a disease which was leading deaths in the US that is in the 20th century. Nowadays, most of its cases are simply cured using antibiotics but this takes a long time (Drain et al, 2014). This goes for about 6 to 9 months. TB is basically spread through the air. What happens is that, when someone who is sick coughs, talks, sneezes or basically sings, there are very tiny droplets are released and they happen to have the germs. This is basically why TB is easily spread among all individuals.
Another thing with the disease is that its infection doesn’t mean one will get sick. There are mainly two forms of TB; there are the latent TB and the Active TB disease. When it comes to latent TB, it means that one has the germs in their body, but when it comes to their immune system, it helps the germs not to spread. This is what means that one has no symptoms and also not contagious in any way. The infection happens to be alive in their body and after sometimes this infection will eventually become active (Drain et al, 2014). The other part which is on Active TB disease it means that the germs are rapidly multiplying and it can make someone sick at any time. This means that the affected person can also spread the disease to the other individuals. In most cases where the adult cases of Active TB are involved, it happens to come from the recurrence of the Infection of the latent TB.
What are the symptoms of the disease?
Even though there happen to have a number of types of Tuberculosis, the pulmonary tuberculosis is the one which is mainly responsible the infections of TB. Subsequently, the symptoms and signs of pulmonary TB may happen before or when other TB types are identified or diagnosed. Those symptoms and signs of the Pulmonary TB which classically include the following; a lot of fever, coughing, sweating during the night, coughing up sputum that is bloody and this is basically known as Hemoptysis. There is also the appetite loss, loss of weight, there is also fatigue, pain in the chest, breath shortness (Carvalho et al, 2014) There are also the lymph nodes which are swollen and also the pneumonitis. The other types of TB are roughly classified as superfluous pulmonary and usually have those symptoms which are not very specific but they happen to be localized to the site which is involved.
What are the causes?
Simply, the cause of Tuberculosis is the infection of human tissue or tissues by that bacteria which causes TB and it’s commonly known as the Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These bacteria happen to have a slow growth, aerobic and which can develop within the cells of the body. The unique cell of the bacteria helps it when it comes to protection. The wall protects it from the defenses of the body and hence giving the mycobacteria the capability to be in a position of retaining specific dyes. A good example is a fuchsin. This happens after a certain rinse of an acid which infrequently occurs with other bacterial or fungal.
The mycobacteria that happen to escape the devastation by the defenses or ramparts of the body usually may be spread or binge by the blood or the pathways of lymphatic up to the most organs. This happens with the preference to those organs which have a lot of oxygen like the lungs and bones. Distinctive TB lesions, granulomas that are termed, typically consist of an area known as central necrotic. It also has a zone which usually consists macrophages, giant or huge cells known as Langerhans and also the lymphocytes which happens to be surrounded by the macrophages which are not immature, the cells known as the plasma and more and more lymphocytes (Carvalho et al, 2014). The granulomas, they as well contain the mycobacteria. In the infections of latent, a fibrous capsule regularly surrounds these granulomas wherein some individuals, the granulomas fossilize or calcify. If the immune ramparts happen to fail at the beginning or later, the Tb bacteria goes on spreading and disrupting the functions of the organs.
What is the diagnosis? How was it found?
TB is usually diagnosed by the skin test which is known as the Mantoux. What happens is that a small or minor amount of this tuberculin is injected into the skin and therefore a measure of tuberculin reaction is done. Still, there happens that some more tests require being completed so that the test of the skin is measured (Dorman et al, 2016). The test done on the chest as a way of x-rays shows whether TB is existing in the lung. Another thing done is that the if a person is suspected to be carrying TB, their sputum is collected. The laboratory is then used so as to confirm whether the bacteria will have to develop from that sample. These are the three tests which confirm the diagnosis of TB.
The work of Tuberculosis foundation of KNCV is basically rooted in combined, the patient positioned care and the anticipation under the world END strategy of TB. Another thing is the building on the principles of the previous strategy of the world. The strategy is usually the Stop of Tuberculosis. It merged the strategy like DOTS and involved the full range of those areas of specialists.
Describe the prognosis and treatments (i.e. drugs, surgery).
An explanation of prognosis of tuberculosis gives that, for those most individuals who happen to live in those places where treatment and diagnosis are accessible, the TB prognosis is better if they only complete the procedures of treatment. The reappearance of TB happens to be zero to fourteen percent and some happen to be due to reinfection. There is that TB which is usually drug-resistant and it, therefore, happens to be very hard to treat it. This is where now prognosis happens to not be good (World Health Organization, 2016). This very same prognosis which is poor happens at the patients who happen to be immunocompromised, those patients who are elderly and lastly, the ones with the preceding TB contamination and treatment.
With the appropriate treatment, TB is nearly curable like all the time. What doctors do in its treatment, they prescribe antibiotics which kill that bacteria causing TB. This happens for a period of about six to nine months. The medications which one take and the period one will take depends on the kind of works which are able to eradicate ones TB. Many doctors term this TB as a drug-resistant one. When one happens to have this form of the disease, one has to, therefore, take stronger medications for a long period.
What body system(s) and organs are affected and specifics on how they affect lifestyle.
The main affected systems are the central nervous, gastrointestinal system and lastly the cardiovascular system. Other organs which are affected are the bones, the lymph nodes, and the lungs as this are where the development of the disease is usually located. This affection affects the lifestyle of the patient in a big way (Dorman et al, 2016). The main effects are mainly the lung damage which instantly causes death. If TB happens to not have been diagnosed and treated, the infection can lead to death. One can also affect the lifestyle through affecting the brain. When the infection happens to be stronger and they are not treated, they can cause meningitis which affects the brain in such a big way.
What is the life expectancy of a person with the disease? Explain.
The current models of the untreated or untouched tuberculosis that undertake a total period of not more than two years until self-cure or death underrate the period of disease buy almost one year. Commonly, the case casualty approximates of about 71% for smear-positive and about 25% for that positive culture smear-negative TB appear to be suitable.
Discuss the latest research that is being conducted concerning the disease.
Recently, there are numerous, areas of research which are focusing on tuberculosis. This includes the diagnostics, vaccines, and treatment. The research of tuberculosis has brought about many advances and many scientists on TB have continued to make their research for more effective and better treatment methods (Zhao et al, 2016). They are also looking for the best ways to prevent it.
Give your own hypothesis for a cure for the disease.
It has been somehow traditionally or culturally hypothesized that people, as along they are infected with TB, they retain latent bacilli throughout their life and that these latent bacilli will remain inactive in sessions which are old. Tactlessly, the evidence of these bacilli can only be forecast by indirect immunological approaches, methods like Tuberin test of the skin. I think there is a good question which fits all the parts. Why is that a treatment of 9-month with the isoniazid eradicate is the certainly present in the lesions? I, therefore, propose a hypothesis that defines a dynamic situation of continual endogenous reinfection with tuberculosis that clarifies he effectiveness of the existing treatment standard. References
Drain, P. K., Losina, E., Coleman, S. M., Giddy, J., Ross, D., Katz, J. N., … & Bassett, I. V. (2014). Diagnostic accuracy of a point-of-care urine test for tuberculosis screening among newly-diagnosed HIV-infected adults: a prospective, clinic-based study. BMC infectious diseases, 14(1), 110.
Matteelli, A., Roggi, A., & Carvalho, A. C. (2014). Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis: epidemiology and management. Clinical epidemiology, 6, 111.
Raju, R. M., Raju, S. M., Zhao, Y., & Rubin, E. J. (2016). Leveraging advances in tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment to address nontuberculous mycobacterial disease. Emerging infectious diseases, 22(3), 365.
Nahid, P., Dorman, S. E., Alipanah, N., Barry, P. M., Brozek, J. L., Cattamanchi, A., … & Higashi, J. M. (2016). Official American Thoracic Society/centers for disease control and prevention/infectious diseases society of America clinical practice guidelines: treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 63(7), e147-e195.
World Health Organization. (2016). Global tuberculosis report 2016.