Individual and Organizational Behavior

Deadline is approaching?

Wait no more. Let us write you an essay from scratch

Receive Paper In 3 Hours

Li, N., Liang, J., & Crant, J.M. (2010). The role of proactive personality in job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior: a relational perspective. Journal of applied psychology, 95(2), 395.
Original paragraph: “Supervisors largely determine important subordinate outcomes (e.g., job assignment, promotion, performance appraisal).In part because it is a fundamental part of the mechanism by which proactive workers experience job satisfaction and demonstrate citizenship behaviors, the exchange relationship between an employee and his or her supervisor is a vital interpersonal interaction for proactive employees. Employees who are constructive manage their interactions with their employers and, as a result, have higher job satisfaction than their less proactive coworkers” (Li et al. 2010, p.401).
Acceptable Paraphrase
The various outcomes of employees’ duties such as promotions are greatly determined by their supervisors. Thus, employees keen on preventing challenges from arising are keen on ensuring they maintain a close and personal relationship with their supervisors as it gives them job satisfaction. It is part of their citizenship behaviour. They pay attention to their relationship with the supervisors and strive to maintain it. This aspect grants them job satisfaction unlike other employees within their organizations.

Direct Quotation

“Supervisors largely determine important subordinate outcomes (e.g., job assignment, promotion, performance appraisal). The exchange relationship between an employee and her or his supervisor is an important interpersonal connection for proactive employees, in part because it is a central part of the process by which proactive employees experience job satisfaction and exhibit citizenship behaviours. Proactive employees actively manage relationships with their supervisors and ultimately experience greater job satisfaction than do their less proactive coworkers” (Li et al. 2010, p.401).

Summary

Proactive employees are seen to have a greater job satisfaction than their counterparts. This is mainly attributed to their citizenship behaviour, which involves maintaining a close relationship with their supervisors.

Paragraph integrating the direct quotation into paraphrased discussion

In their discussion, Li, Liang, & Crant (2010), point out that there is a great relationship between the organizational and the employees’ behaviour through their respective supervisors since “Supervisors largely determine important subordinate outcomes” (p. 401). How employees relate with these supervisors determines their job satisfaction. This shows that organizational behavior influences employee’s. Supervisors are part of the organization’s lower management. The fact that they determine the outcomes of employee’s duties makes the proactive workers keen on maintaining a good relationship with them. In return, they obtain great outcomes, which give them job satisfaction. As illustrated by the researchers, “Proactive employees actively manage relationships with their supervisors and ultimately experience greater job satisfaction than do their less proactive co-workers” (Li et al. 2010, p.401).

Direct quotation from:

Original paraphrase: Umphress, E.E., Bingham, J.B., & Mitchell, M.S. (2010). Unethical behaviour in the name of the company: the moderating effect of organizational identification and positive reciprocity beliefs on unethical pro-organizational behaviour. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(4), 769.

Original paragraph: “Our results suggest that the combination of organizational identification and positive reciprocity beliefs influences unethical behaviour. These results provide some support for prior theoretical work on the dark side of organizational identification (Ashforth & Anand, 2003; Dukerich et al., 1998) but suggest that strong organizational identification alone does not predict unethical behaviour” (Umphress, Bingham, & Mitchell, 2010, p.777).

Acceptable paraphrase

The findings from the research indicate that unethical behaviour is a product of various factors such as positive reciprocity and organizational identification. As such, this information goes to shed more light on previous studies conducted which portray the demerits of organizational identification. However, unethical behaviour cannot be predicted by organizational identification alone since there are other factors involved (Umphress, et al. 2010, p.777).

Direct quotation

“Our results suggest that the combination of organizational identification and positive reciprocity beliefs influences unethical behaviour. These results provide some support for prior theoretical work on the dark side of organizational identification (Ashforth & Anand, 2003; Dukerich et al., 1998) but suggest that strong organizational identification alone does not predict unethical behavior” (Umphress et al. 2010, p.777).

Summary

Unethical behaviour is brought about by both positive reciprocity and organizational identification. As such, one cannot effectively predict unethical behaviour using organizational identification alone.

Paragraph integrating the direct quotation into paraphrased discussion

In their study on Unethical Behaviour, Umphress, Bingham, & Mitchell (2010), point out that there is a relationship between the subject and other factors such as positive reciprocity and organizational identification. They argue that the combination of these two factors is what brings about unethical behaviour. They support their argument by noting that their findings are in line with findings from previous findings on the subject. They argue, “These results provide some support for prior theoretical work on the dark side of organizational identification” (p. 777). Going with this information, one can confidently argue that it is ineffective to have employees align with the organizational behaviour. This means that one should not push employees into behaving in a static manner. Instead, employees should be free to embrace their individual behaviours as long as they will go about their affairs in a manner that contributes towards meeting the organization’s set objective.

References

Li, N., Liang, J., & Crant, J.M. (2010). The role of proactive personality in job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior: a relational perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(2), 395. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/41967731_The_Role_of_Proactive_Personality_in_Job_Satisfaction_and_Organizational_Citizenship_Behavior_A_Relational_Perspective

Richards, J. (2008). Introduction; What is Rhetoric? London: Routledge.

Umphress, E.E., Bingham, J.B., & Mitchell, M.S. (2010). Unethical behavior in the name of the company: the moderating effect of organizational identification and positive reciprocity beliefs on unethical pro-organizational behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(4), 769-780. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20604596

This sample could have been used by your fellow student... Get your own unique essay on any topic and submit it by the deadline.

Let a professional writer get your back and save some time!

Hire Writer

Find Out the Cost of Your Paper

Get Price
Hi!

Can’t find the essay you need? Our professional writers are ready to complete a unique paper for you. Just fill in the form and submit your order.

Proceed to the form No, thank you
Can’t find the essay you need?