In the text, Immanuel Kant is a notable philosopher. The author of the boo presents an article titled Critique of Pure Reason on Immanuel Kant’s writings, which allows one to have an intuitive understanding of philosophical reasoning and how ethics applies to a given being’s reasoning. Kant defines pure reasoning as a problem that arises from open and empirical knowledge. Kant claims that much of a human being’s awareness is based on life experiences that he or she is currently having or has previously had. This is how scientific science works (Kant and Paul 113). However, there are additional factors that tend to have an influence on the knowledge that one may have or posses. The factors include the perception and beliefs that one uses to critique the empirical knowledge (Cahn 126). As such, there is two fronts of knowledge, pure and empirical knowledge. The empirical knowledge is known as the priori knowledge while the absolute knowledge is known as the posteriori knowledge according to the author.

Priori knowledge is the form of knowledge that does not require any kind of experience. For example, it is widely known that when a person places a heavy rock on top of glass, the glass will break. To have and gain such knowledge, a person is not obliged to first place a heavy stone on top of the glass for the glass to break. Rather, the knowledge flows automatically fro Immanuel Kant titled Critique of Pure Reason m the preconceived information on the relation between cumbersome and fragile objects in the society. All forms of priori knowledge tend to emanate from the universal rule that is also common to all the human beings (Casullo 38).

Kant further asserts that the posteriori knowledge tends to originate from the experience that one goes through in life. For example, it is an experiential knowledge that one will be wet when he or she gets into pool of water. The knowledge is born from the experience where one is walking through the rain or where one has been immersed in a pool of water then realizes that he or she is wet from the immersion.

The premises that the philosopher presents are foundational to understanding the concept of philosophical reasoning that has been taught in class. Gaining knowledge is a perpetual process owing to the differences in experiences and the levels of interactions readings that one may have. For example, the true knowledge does not require any level or form of experience for one to have its understanding. Taking the case of the primary school learning, one gets to have a common knowledge that one plus one is two. While there is no experience of gaining the knowledge and making sound proof of such assertion, the universal rule dictates that the arithmetic answer of one plus one is two and any other answer other than two is false. Additionally, the arguments on the priori knowledge are also in tandem with the readings and the teachings that have been presented in class. The process of life and the interactions within the setting of many people leads one to go through experiences (Cahn 219). The experiences often serve as a source of knowledge for the beliefs through which we trace our identity and the beliefs that we develop regarding various issues and circumstances in life.

In the classroom setting, philosophy has been presented as a study of knowledge. Therefore, through the study of the philosophers and the assertions that are often made by the scholars, one gets to immerse him or herself in the knowledge of self and further critique the source of knowledge that he or she has gained. Such leads to the pure reasoning that is being advanced by Kant. The determination of both the priory and the posteori knowledge enables one to gauge the knowledge that he or she has by it being true or being valid in an argument that may be presented by an individual (Casullo 47).

The choices that are often made by humans is often dependent on the knowledge that he or she has. Knowledge, particularly posteriori knowledge, enables one to make a rational decision of that which is deemed good and what is considered to be wrong in the society. Having knowledge of a given concept or information leads to the realization of what is good and that which may be regarded as bad. Good and evil are, therefore, primarily dependent on the information that one has since information guides the decisions and choice that one is likely to make. Concisely, the teachings that are fronted by the author are in tandem with what has been taught in class regarding reasoning. Reasoning has to be based on validated claims. Valid claims emanate from the form of knowledge to which we trace the specific information that is contained in the claims. The universal codes and the experiences that one goes through are, therefore, the two primary sources of knowledge.

Works Cited

Cahn, Steven M. Exploring Philosophy: An Introductory Anthology. , 2015. Print.

Casullo, Albert. Essays on a Priori Knowledge and Justification. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012. Print.

Kant, Immanuel, and Paul Guyer. Critique of Pure Reason. Cambridge [u.a.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2000. Print.

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