Psychological growth continues from infancy to puberty until adulthood. Although several studies have been carried out, the theory of Jean Piaget offers an informative study of each point (Pressley & McCormick, 2006). He carried out a critical study of the cognitive actions of children and developed a theory that summed up their intellectual growth. It comprises four primary phases of psychosocial development with the main hallmark in the respective phases.
The sensorimotor stage records the age group from childhood to two years of age. Children prefer to use sensory experiences to discover the environment, which is the key force behind intelligence acquisition. The concept of object constancy occurs in the childs mind, attaching names to specific objects (Pressley & McCormick, 2006). The most important hallmark is the ability to distinct objects and the existence outside ones perception. Children aged between two to seven years are in the preoperational stage where they learn through playing pretense but cant make logic. They show inconsistent ideals of constancy (Pressley & McCormick, 2006). It is an important, since the child can distinguish objects difference sizes, appearance, etc. The concrete operational stage falls in the age group of between seven to eleven years. They show logical understanding of concepts and objects but are not stable to address abstract ideas (Pressley & McCormick, 2006). Most importantly, children observe their uniqueness and accept the diversity of thoughts, ideas, feelings, and opinions among people. The formal operational stage is the transitional stage from adolescence to adulthood. Children are able to observe logic in their thoughts and actions. Besides, they are able to address abstract concepts (Pressley & McCormick, 2006). The most important aspect of this stage is the childs ability to use deductive reasoning in line with scientific approach to resolve problems on various issues about their immediate surroundings and the world.
Piagets theory is emphatic on the cognitive transition across physiological changes in children. The theory forms an important basis to understand children and help them through their life to achieve their potential and appreciate diversity.
Pressley, M., & McCormick, C. (2006). Child and adolescent development for educators. New York: Guilford Press.
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