Homeland Security Department

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DHS has undergone multiple dynamic changes since its establishment in 2001, which have been directed towards its efficient operations. Deep improvements were found to combat and respond to home security risks in government policies and systems. The DHS activity, however, began in 2003 with main objectives to avoid and minimize the damage caused by mileage attacks in the United States of America (Relyea, 2004). With more than 200 000 employees and an annual budget of over $50 billion annually, the department is regarded as the third most important federal department. In 2003, the DHS received over one thousand products courtesy of GAO. Some of the changes DHS has undergone changes which include: border security, aviation security, emergency preparedness and response, chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear threats. In 2011, the DHS decided to implement its management functions which interfered with its ability to meet its homeland security and other missions.

During the year 2010, the department issued a report that meant to guide local authorities and its security partners. In 2007, the department made progress in formulating its goals by assessing actions that it took to hit the goals in each function. The HSA was enacted into law by forming DHS. In 2004, Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act was enacted into law to work in handy with the DHS. The department upgrades its technology in 2010 to improve weapon detection and heighten its security levels. This was after an attacking threat that destroyed different parts of US. A risk assessment structure was implemented in 2006 to determine which agents posed specific material threats to the country. Over the years the department has increased its operations both in an efficient and transparent manner. Its transparency has made the life in the United States easy to live as well as making the life of foreigners simple and comfortable. Over time the department has focused on maintaining tight security within the country. To counter attack extremism, the DHS has employed governance structure thus questing for greater clarity and prior planning of the activities. The department has also has hired more cyber security professionals to ensure that the country security is not at stake whatsoever.

Question 2

To enhance its security system Department of Homeland Security in the US has collaborated with various law enforcement and intelligence. After the attacks in 2001, a mechanism has been underway to in the relationship of federal state, and local homeland security. At a national level, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has been created, the gap between law enforcement and intelligence has been nearly subtle. It has seen some law enforcement organizations are being directed to become more intelligence agencies, and the foreign intelligence community is being fundamentally reformed (Schanzer et.al, 2008). The results of these dynamics have been even mega at the state level. The state governments have been assigned the lead role in homeland security.

The majority of states have responded by drawing together existing public security, law agencies, and emergency response capabilities linking them to similar local assets and opening channels for their states. There is high need of developing a single integrated intelligence enterprise with well-defined lanes on the road for each large, complicated state like New York. Therefore, there is a need to differentiate between departmental intelligence and state intelligence. The states and local fusion centers at the designated focal points connecting the federal IC to state and local intelligence collectors and analyst on counterterrorism threats.

Question 3

The organization structure of DHS has been divided into five levels. The top level is made up the secretary, chief of staff who manages executive secretary and military advisor. The deputy secretary, in turn, manages management doctorate, science and technology directorate, national protection and program Directorate, an office of supply, the office of the general counsel, office of legislative affairs and the office of the inspector general. The above departments under DHS are responsible for external threats that affect the company. However, the other middle levels and middle-level departments are concerned with securing the internal threats. Such departments include office if intelligence and analysis and privacy offices. The current structure is complex and sketchy.

The following changes can be applied to manage its operations. Establish strategies that empower state and local authorities to meet the wants for disaster response and domestic counterterrorism operations (Burruss, Giblin, & Schafer, 2010). Adoption of a fair, honest and realistic approach to immigration and enforcements that recognize state and local authorities as responsible partners. The overhauling process of DHS would be necessary for declaring national disasters and dispensing homeland security threats grants. Additionally, restructuring Transportation Security Administration so that aviation security policy should be accorded maximum supervision.

Question 4

Centralization: The US Constitution divides power between the federal government, state and local governments. It is a challenge that has faced Department of Homeland Security. There has been over-centralization of power by the top management making the execution of duties difficult.

Complacency is another trait of DHS that US government should address. Complacency makes the American people focus more on terrorist attacks that have occurred in the past instead of focusing on how DHS attempts to address such issues (Dodaro, 2011).

Political: DHS is a politicized department and therefore, it is more often affected by the decision made by the federal government. The political nature results in too many attempts of corruption thus posing threats to the safety of the nation. It needs to be addressed in future because it may impede the DHS operations.

Question 5

Leadership challenges: the leadership in DHS has been in question due to impediments in coordinating the homeland security enterprise. The challenge has resulted from politicizing the department. However, DHS needs to take additional action to forge effective partnerships and strengthen the sharing and utilization of information.

Implementing and integrating management functions for results. As much as DHS has made strides in making its stakeholders healthy and satisfied, it has failed to execute or integrate the management issues effectively (Heeks, 2005). The issue has led to schedule delays, cost increases, and performance problems in some programs aimed at delivering important mission capabilities.

Strategically managing risk and assessing homeland security efforts as a result of centralization. Establishing new offices to respond to evolving threats was and is a significant challenge facing DHS. This has impacted DHS approaches and investments. DHS should seek solution immediately as they arise.

Question 6

Cyber terrorism is rated 73% as the biggest threat the US fears in the next ten years especially, with international terrorism leading. Cyber terrorism has played a major role in making sure that the US remains on its toes in maintaining the security status of the country. It is a fact that US major threat in the 21st century. Therefore, DHS must remain on toes to make sure it does not subject the security of the US at stake by implementing necessary techniques that can curb the vice.

References

Heeks, R. (2005). Implementing and managing eGovernment: an international text. Sage.

Dodaro, G. L. (2011). GAO’s 2011 High-Risk Series: An Update (No. GAO-11-394T). GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE WASHINGTON DC.

Schanzer, D. H., Eyerman, J., De Rugy, V., Bryson, J. M., Crosby, B. C., Stone, M. M., & Saunoi-Sandgren, E. O. (2008). Strategic risk management in government: A look at homeland security. IBM Center for the Business of Government.

Relyea, H. C. (2004). Homeland security and information sharing: Federal policy considerations. Government Information Quarterly, 21(4), 420-438.

Burruss, G. W., Giblin, M. J., & Schafer, J. A. (2010). Threatened globally, acting locally: Modeling law enforcement homeland security practices. Justice Quarterly, 27(1), 77-101.

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